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That system, up to and including its final release Mac OS 9 , was a direct descendant of the operating system Apple had used in its Macintosh computers since their introduction in However, the current macOS is a Unix operating system built on technology that had been developed at NeXT from the s until Apple purchased the company in early Although it was originally marketed as simply “version 10” of the Mac OS indicated by the Roman numeral “X” , it has a completely different codebase from Mac OS 9, as well as substantial changes to its user interface.
The transition was a technologically and strategically significant one. To ease the transition for users and developers, versions through The desktop version aimed at regular users— Mac OS X Since then, several more distinct desktop and server editions of macOS have been released.
Starting with Mac OS X After Apple removed Steve Jobs from management in , he left the company and attempted to create the “next big thing”, with funding from Ross Perot  and himself. The result was the NeXT Computer. As the first workstation to include a digital signal processor DSP and a high-capacity optical disc drive, NeXT hardware was advanced for its time, but was expensive relative to the rapidly commoditizing workstation market.
It featured an object-oriented programming framework based on the Objective-C language. This environment is known today in the Mac world as Cocoa. It also supported the innovative Enterprise Objects Framework database access layer and WebObjects application server development environment, among other notable features. All but abandoning the idea of an operating system, NeXT managed to maintain a business selling WebObjects and consulting services, only ever making modest profits in its last few quarters as an independent company.
However, by this point, a number of other companies — notably Apple, IBM, Microsoft, and even Sun itself — were claiming they would soon be releasing similar object-oriented operating systems and development tools of their own.
Some of these efforts, such as Taligent , did not fully come to fruition; others, like Java , gained widespread adoption. Meanwhile, Apple was facing commercial difficulties of its own. The decade-old Macintosh System Software had reached the limits of its single-user, co-operative multitasking architecture, and its once-innovative user interface was looking increasingly outdated. A massive development effort to replace it, known as Copland , was started in , but was generally perceived outside Apple to be a hopeless case due to political infighting and conflicting goals.
By , Copland was nowhere near ready for release, and the project was eventually cancelled. At first, the plan was to develop a new operating system based almost entirely on an updated version of OPENSTEP, with the addition of a virtual machine subsystem — known as the Blue Box — for running “classic” Macintosh applications. The result was known by the code name Rhapsody , slated for release in late Apple expected that developers would port their software to the considerably more powerful OPENSTEP libraries once they learned of its power and flexibility.
Instead, several major developers such as Adobe told Apple that this would never occur, and that they would rather leave the platform entirely.
This “rejection” of Apple’s plan was largely the result of a string of previous broken promises from Apple; after watching one “next OS” after another disappear and Apple’s market share dwindle, developers were not interested in doing much work on the platform at all, let alone a re-write.
Apple’s financial losses continued and the board of directors lost confidence in CEO Gil Amelio , asking him to resign. The board asked Steve Jobs to lead the company on an interim basis, essentially giving him carte blanche to make changes to return the company to profitability.
When Jobs announced at the World Wide Developer’s Conference that what developers really wanted was a modern version of the Mac OS, and Apple was going to deliver it [ citation needed ] , he was met with applause. Over the next two years, a major effort was applied to porting the original Macintosh APIs to Unix libraries known as Carbon.
Mac OS applications could be ported to Carbon without the need for a complete re-write, making them operate as native applications on the new operating system. Meanwhile, applications written using the older toolkits would be supported using the “Classic” Mac OS 9 environment.
During this time, the lower layers of the operating system the Mach kernel and the BSD layers on top of it  were re-packaged and released under the Apple Public Source License. They became known as Darwin. The Darwin kernel provides a stable and flexible operating system, which takes advantage of the contributions of programmers and independent open-source projects outside Apple; however, it sees little use outside the Macintosh community [ citation needed ].
During this period, the Java programming language had increased in popularity, and an effort was started to improve Mac Java support. Aqua was a substantial departure from the Mac OS 9 interface, which had evolved with little change from that of the original Macintosh operating system: it incorporated full color scalable graphics, anti-aliasing of text and graphics, simulated shading and highlights, transparency and shadows, and animation. A new feature was the Dock, an application launcher which took advantage of these capabilities.
Despite this, Mac OS X maintained a substantial degree of consistency with the traditional Mac OS interface and Apple’s own Apple Human Interface Guidelines , with its pull-down menu at the top of the screen, familiar keyboard shortcuts, and support for a single-button mouse.
The development of Aqua was delayed somewhat by the switch from OpenStep’s Display PostScript engine to one developed in-house that was free of any license restrictions, known as Quartz.
Prior to its release, version After the code name “Jaguar” for version Apple registered “Lynx” and “Cougar”, but these were allowed to lapse. While many critics suggested that the operating system was not ready for mainstream adoption, they recognized the importance of its initial launch as a base on which to improve. Simply releasing Mac OS X was received by the Macintosh community as a great accomplishment, for attempts to completely overhaul the Mac OS had been underway since , and delayed by countless setbacks.
Following some bug fixes, kernel panics became much less frequent. Mac OS X Apple released On January 7, , Apple announced that Mac OS X was to be the default operating system for all Macintosh products by the end of that month.
In addition to providing much improved performance, it also incorporated the most extensive update yet to the user interface. Apple stated that Tiger contained more than new features. The initial release of the Apple TV used a modified version of Tiger with a different graphical interface and fewer applications and services.
On January 10, , Apple released the first Intel-based Macs along with the This operating system functioned identically on the PowerPC-based Macs and the new Intel-based machines, with the exception of the Intel release dropping support for the Classic environment.
Apple called it “the largest update of Mac OS X”. The single DVD works for all supported Macs including bit machines. New features include a new look, an updated Finder, Time Machine , Spaces , Boot Camp pre-installed,  full support for bit applications including graphical applications , new features in Mail and iChat , and a number of new security features.
Rather than delivering big changes to the appearance and end user functionality like the previous releases of Mac OS X , the development of Snow Leopard was deliberately focused on “under the hood” changes, increasing the performance, efficiency, and stability of the operating system. For most users, the most noticeable changes are these: the disk space that the operating system frees up after a clean installation compared to Mac OS X It brought developments made in Apple’s iOS, such as an easily navigable display of installed applications Launchpad and a greater use of multi-touch gestures, to the Mac.
This release removed Rosetta , making it incapable of running PowerPC applications. It dropped support for bit Intel processors and requires 2GB of memory. Documents auto-save by default. It incorporates some features seen in iOS 5, which include Game Center , support for iMessage in the new Messages messaging application, and Reminders as a to-do list app separate from iCal which is renamed as Calendar, like the iOS app.
It also includes support for storing iWork documents in iCloud. Application pop-ups are now concentrated on the corner of the screen, and the Center itself is pulled from the right side of the screen.
Mountain Lion also includes more Chinese features, including support for Baidu as an option for Safari search engine. Notes is added, as an application separate from Mail, synching with its iOS counterpart   through the iCloud service.
Messages, an instant messaging software application ,  replaces iChat. Mavericks requires 2GB of memory to operate. It is the first version named under Apple’s then-new theme of places in California , dubbed Mavericks after the surfing location. It featured a major overhaul of user interface, replaced skeuomorphism with flat graphic design and blurred translucency effects, following the aesthetic introduced with iOS 7.
It introduced features called Continuity and Handoff, which allow for tighter integration between paired OS X and iOS devices: the user can handle phone calls or text messages on either their Mac or their iPhone, and edit the same Pages document on either their Mac or their iPad.
Apple described this release as containing “Refinements to the Mac Experience” and “Improvements to System Performance” rather than new features. Refinements include public transport built into the Maps application, GUI improvements to the Notes application, as well as adopting San Francisco as the system font. Metal API , an application enhancing software, had debuted in this operating system, being available to “all Macs since “. The update brought Siri to macOS, featuring several Mac-specific features, like searching for files.
It also allowed websites to support Apple Pay as a method of transferring payment, using either a nearby iOS device or Touch ID to authenticate. It was released publicly on September 20, It was released on September 25, In addition, numerous changes were made to standard applications including Photos, Safari, Notes, and Spotlight. It was released on September 24, Some of the key new features were the Dark mode, Desktop stacks and Dynamic Desktop, which changes the desktop background image to correspond to the user’s current time of day.
It was released on October 7, It primarily focuses on updates to built-in apps, such as replacing iTunes with separate Music, Podcasts, and TV apps, redesigned Reminders and Books apps, and a new Find My app. It also features Sidecar, which allows the user to use an iPad as a second screen for their computer, or even simulate a graphics tablet with an Apple Pencil.
It is the first version of macOS not to support bit applications. The Dashboard application was also removed in the update. It was released on October 25, Universal Control allows users to use a single Keyboard and Mouse to move between devices. Airplay now allows users to present and share almost anything. The Shortcuts app was also introduced to macOS, giving users access to galleries of pre-built shortcuts, designed for Macs, a service brought from iOS.
Users can now also set up shortcuts, among other things. Currently in beta testing, the public release is expected to be available in late From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. History of Apple’s current Mac operating system. Rhapsody Developer Release Hera Server 1. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Translate PDF. Whether you are a startup entrepreneur or corporate entrepreneur, there are important lessons here for you on your quest toward the new and unknown. The ideas in The Lean Startup will help create the next industrial revolution.
Seriously, stop and read this book now. If you are thinking about becoming an entrepreneur, read this book. If you are just curious about entrepreneurship, read this book.
Do yourself a favor and read this book. This book provides a brilliant, well-documented, and practical answer. It is sure to become a management classic. The Lean Startup is the foundation for reimagining almost everything about how work works. This is a cookbook for entrepreneurs in organizations of all sizes.
It provides actionable ways to avoid product-learning mistakes, rigorously evaluate early signals from the market through validated learning, and decide whether to persevere or to pivot, all challenges that heighten the chance of entrepreneurial failure. Should be required reading not only for the entrepreneurs that I work with, but for my friends and colleagues in various industries who have inevitably grappled with many of the challenges that The Lean Startup addresses.
This book is a must-read for entrepreneurs who are truly ready to start something great! New business enterprises. Organizational effectiveness. R Start 2. Define 3. Learn 4. Leap 6. Test 7. Measure 8. Batch Grow Adapt Innovate Epilogue: Waste Not Brilliant college kids in a dorm are inventing the future.
Heedless of boundaries, possessed of new technology and youthful enthusiasm, they build a new company from scratch. Their early success allows them to raise money and bring an amazing new product to market. They hire their friends, assemble a superstar team, and dare the world to stop them. Ten years and several startups ago, that was me, building my rst company.
I particularly remember a moment from back then: the moment I realized my company was going to fail. The dot-com bubble had burst, and we had spent all our money. We tried desperately to raise more capital, and we could not. It was like a breakup scene from a Hollywood movie: it was raining, and we were arguing in the street. It remains a painful memory.
The company limped along for months afterward, but our situation was hopeless. At the time, it had seemed we were doing everything right: we had a great product, a brilliant team, amazing technology, and the right idea at the right time. And we really were on to something. We were building a way for college kids to create online pro les for the purpose of sharing … with employers.
Everyone who thought you were foolish for stepping out on your own will be proven right. In magazines and newspapers, in blockbuster movies, and on countless blogs, we hear the mantra of the successful entrepreneurs: through determination, brilliance, great timing, and—above all—a great product, you too can achieve fame and fortune.
There is a mythmaking industry hard at work to sell us that story, but I have come to believe that the story is false, the product of selection bias and after-the-fact rationalization. In fact, having worked with hundreds of entrepreneurs, I have seen rsthand how often a promising start leads to failure. The grim reality is that most startups fail. Most new products are not successful. Most new ventures do not live up to their potential. Yet the story of perseverance, creative genius, and hard work persists.
Why is it so popular? I think there is something deeply appealing about this modern-day rags-to-riches story. It makes success seem inevitable if you just have the right stu. If we build it, they will come. After more than ten years as an entrepreneur, I came to reject that line of thinking.
Startup success is not a consequence of good genes or being in the right place at the right time. Entrepreneurship is a kind of management. We have wildly divergent associations with these two words, entrepreneurship and management. Lately, it seems that one is cool, innovative, and exciting and the other is dull, serious, and bland.
It is time to look past these preconceptions. Let me tell you a second startup story. Their previous company had failed very publicly. Their credibility is at an all-time low. They are following a visionary named Will Harvey, who paints a compelling picture: people connecting with their friends, hanging out online, using avatars to give them a combination of intimate connection and safe anonymity. Even better, instead of having to build all the clothing, furniture, and accessories these avatars would need to accessorize their digital lives, the customers would be enlisted to build those things and sell them to one another.
At this point in our careers, my cofounders and I are determined to make new mistakes. We do everything wrong: instead of spending years perfecting our technology, we build a minimum viable product, an early product that is terrible, full of bugs and crash-your-computer-yes-really stability problems. And we charge money for it. After securing initial customers, we change the product constantly—much too fast by traditional standards—shipping new versions of our product dozens of times every single day.
But we emphatically did not do what they said. We viewed their input as only one source of information about our product and overall vision. In fact, we were much more likely to run experiments on our customers than we were to cater to their whims. It builds on many previous management and product development ideas, including lean manufacturing, design thinking, customer development, and agile development.
It represents a new approach to creating continuous innovation. Despite the volumes written on business strategy, the key attributes of business leaders, and ways to identify the next big thing, innovators still struggle to bring their ideas to life.
This was the frustration that led us to try a radical new approach at IMVU, one characterized by an extremely fast cycle time, a focus on what customers want without asking them , and a scienti c approach to making decisions. I have always worked on the product development side of my industry; my partners and bosses were managers or marketers, and my peers worked in engineering and operations.
Throughout my career, I kept having the experience of working incredibly hard on products that ultimately failed in the marketplace. These supposed xes led to still more failure. So I read everything I could get my hands on and was blessed to have had some of the top minds in Silicon Valley as my mentors. I was fortunate to have cofounders who were willing to experiment with new approaches. They were fed up—as I was—by the failure of traditional thinking. Also, we were lucky to have Steve Blank as an investor and adviser.
Back in , Steve had just begun preaching a new idea: the business and marketing functions of a startup should be considered as important as engineering and product development and therefore deserve an equally rigorous methodology to guide them.
The iPad 2 is a tablet designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc. Compared to the first iPad , as the second model in the iPad line, it gained a faster dual core A5 processor , a lighter build structure, and was the first iPad to feature VGA front-facing and p rear-facing cameras designed for FaceTime video calling.
The device was available initially with three storage sizes — 16, 32, and 64 GB   — and two varying connectivity options — Wi-Fi only or Wi-Fi and cellular. Each variation of the device is available with either a black or white front glass panel.
However, upon the release of the 3rd generation iPad in March , only the 16 GB variation remained available. The device received generally positive reception from various blogs and publications. Although it was praised for its hardware improvement, such as the new Apple A5 chip, the software restriction on the iPad 2 and iOS in general drew criticism from various technology commentators.
A popular product, with a lower screen resolution and performance than the two Retina models that followed it but a lighter build and longer battery life, it remained in the Apple line-up as an entry-level iPad model for three years until March , latterly with a silent upgrade to a die-shrunk version of the A5 processor.
Its basic design formed the core of the first iPad mini , which had the same screen pixel count and similar features at a smaller size. Originally shipped with iOS 4 , with the release of iOS 9 the iPad 2 became the only device to have received six major versions of iOS. Apple sent invitations to journalists on February 23, , for a media event on March 2. Apple began selling the iPad 2 on its website on March 11,  and in its U.
Many stores in major cities, such as New York, sold out within hours. The iPad 2 was released internationally in 25 other countries on March 25, The April 29, release date for Japan was postponed due to the earthquake and tsunami which struck the nation on March 11, The iPads were delayed due to the NAND flash storage chip used in the iPads being created by Toshiba , which was affected by the earthquake and tsunami thus resulting in the suspension of operations for an indefinite period of time.
The 32 and 64GB models were discontinued on March 7, , upon the introduction of the third generation iPad. In late March , the iPad 2 was released alongside iOS 4. Like all iOS devices, the iPad 2 can sync music, videos, apps and photos with a Mac or PC using iTunes, although when using iOS 5 and later, the user does not have to connect the iPad to the computer.
Game Center is available as a native social gaming platform on iOS, games downloaded via the App Store that have this feature enabled are able to integrate their achievement points, high-scores and bonus system across all iOS devices into a single accumulative points and social platform. On March 7, , after the unveiling of the third generation iPad, the firmware of the iPad 2 was upgradable to iOS 5.
The software upgrade was downloadable as an over the air OTA update package and contains two hundred new features, including a mapping software designed by Apple dubbed Apple Maps , a “Clock” app, which features a timer, stopwatch and alarm, and Facebook integration among other new features and tweaks. The iPad 2 is compatible with iOS 7 , which was released on September 18, For example, like the iPhone 4, the Notification Center and the Control Center use the transparent style instead of the translucent style in later iOS models.
Users have also reported numerous problems after receiving the update including the accessibility features and battery-related issues.
Many users speculated that the iPad 2 was going to be dropped from updating to iOS 8 along with the iPhone 4, the same process that happened with the iPhone 3GS and the iPod Touch fourth generation and earlier models, considering that the model was more than 3 years old.
As with previous releases, though, many headline features were unavailable on the iPad 2, including predictive Siri , translucency effects, split-view, slide-over and picture-in-picture multitasking and the Health app.
On June 13, , with the release of iOS 10 , Apple dropped support for the iPad 2 because of its hardware and performance issues. The same goes with its successor and the iPad Mini 1st generation , making iOS 9. The iPad 2 is one of many computers and mobile devices susceptible to the “Broadpwn” exploit, which was publicized in July As a result, older Apple devices incompatible with iOS 10, including the iPad 2, were left vulnerable indefinitely.
This has raised concerns of potentially widespread attacks using the exploit, particularly in locations of concentrated iPad 2 deployment, such as certain primary and secondary schools. On July 22, , Apple released iOS 9. The issues would impact accuracy of GPS location and set the device’s date and time to an incorrect value,  preventing connection to HTTPS servers and, consequently, Apple’s servers for activation, iCloud and the iTunes and App stores.
The home button on the iPad 2 is “easier to double tap” than the previous generation of the iPad. The battery is 2. The improvements allowed the injection-molded plastic support frame to be omitted.
The rear camera shoots video in widescreen to match the p standard, although only the central part of the recording is shown on the screen during recording. The Apple A5 chip doubles processing speed and has graphics processing that is up to nine times faster than the previous iPad. Also, the iPad 2 3G model includes a plastic cap-like band at the top on the back for the 3G antenna.
The metallic grille for the microphone is replaced with a matching plastic black grille on the 3G model. The size of the iPad 2 is also less than the original iPad at only 9. After the announcement and release of the third generation iPad, the iPad 2, which continued to be available for purchase, received a hardware upgrade. The upgraded variant of the iPad 2 features a smaller version of the Apple A5 SoC , which is able to reduce battery consumption.
Performance difference between the two variants, according to Anandtech is negligible. The Smart Cover , first introduced with the iPad 2, is a screen protector that magnetically attaches to the face of the iPad. The cover has three folds which allow it to convert into a stand, which is also held together by magnets. Smart Covers have a microfiber bottom that cleans the front of the iPad, and wakes up the iPad when the cover is removed. There are five different colors of both polyurethane and leather, with leather being more expensive than the polyurethane version.
Apple offered several more accessories for the iPad 2,  most of which were adapters for the proprietary pin dock connector , the iPad’s only port besides the headphone jack. The iPad 2 received generally positive reviews, praising its Apple A5 processor and p camera. Joshua Topolsky of Engadget said that “for those of you who haven’t yet made the leap, feel free to take a deep breath and dive in — the iPad 2 is as good as it gets right now.
And it’s really quite good. If you’re happy with your current iPad, there’s no reason to dump it just because there’s a shinier, newer one. This is not to say that millions of people won’t do just that.
I mean: shiny! If you’ve invested in iPad accessories such as a dock or case, keep in mind that you probably won’t be able to use them with the new iPad. Maybe — it depends on a few factors. Will you want to buy one? Use that information wisely. The closed and proprietary nature of iOS has garnered criticism, particularly by digital rights advocates such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation , computer engineer and activist Brewster Kahle , Internet-law specialist Jonathan Zittrain , and the Free Software Foundation who protested the iPad’s introductory event and have targeted the iPad with their ” Defective by Design ” campaign.
At issue are restrictions imposed by the design of iOS, namely DRM intended to lock purchased media to Apple’s platform, the development model requiring a yearly subscription to distribute apps developed for the iOS , the centralized approval process for apps, as well as Apple’s general control and lockdown of the platform itself. Particularly at issue is the ability for Apple to remotely disable or delete apps at will.
Some in the tech community have expressed concern that the locked-down iOS represents a growing trend in Apple’s approach to computing, particularly Apple’s shift away from machines that hobbyists can “tinker with” and note the potential for such restrictions to stifle software innovation. Some iPad 2 users reported performance issues when running iOS 8. During the first weekend of sale, more than one million units were sold.
In two iPad 2 tablets were taken to the International Space Station after being approved. Source: Apple Newsroom Archive. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Tablet computer made by Apple — March 11, March 25, April 29, May 6, May 27, See also: iPad Hardware. Main article: List of iPad accessories. See also: Timeline of Apple Inc. July 22, Retrieved March 10, January 27, Retrieved June 30, Ars Technica. Retrieved March 21, Tom’s Guide. Retrieved October 17, Retrieved April 18, January 31, Retrieved April 15, Business Insider.
Archived from the original on December 11, Retrieved June 29, Retrieved April 23, The Unofficial Apple Weblog. The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved January 17, Jobs announced that the iOS 5.
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These can offer significant performance gains by caching the compiled form of a PHP script in shared odf to avoid the overhead of filemaker pro 14 the missing manual pdf free and compiling the code every time the script runs. Most of these PHP-related vulnerabilities can be exploited remotely: they allow hackers to steal or destroy data from data sources linked to the webserver such as an SQL databasesend spam or contribute to DOS attacks using malware, which itself can be installed on filemsker vulnerable servers.
These vulnerabilities are caused mostly by not following best practice missint rules: technical security flaws of the language itself or of its core libraries are not frequent.
Recognizing that programmers cannot tje trusted, some languages include taint checking to detect ppdf the lack of input validation which induces many issues. However, such a feature is being developed for PHP Hosting PHP applications on a server requires a careful and constant attention to deal with these security risks. There are advanced protection patches such as Suhosin and Hardening-Patch, especially designed for web hosting environments.
With respect to securing the code itself, PHP code can be obfuscated to make it difficult to read while remaining functional. Anything outside its missibg is sent directly to the output and is not parsed by PHP. For this reason, the use of short tags and ASP-style tags is discouraged.
Variables are prefixed with a dollar filemaker pro 14 the missing manual pdf free and a type does not need to перейти specified in advance. Unlike function and class names, variable names are case sensitive. PHP treats newlines pgo whitespace in the manner of a free-form vilemaker except when inside string quotesand statements are terminated by a semicolon.
The echo statement is one of several facilities PHP provides to output text e. In terms of keywords and language syntax, PHP is tge to most high level languages that follow the C style syntax. This range is typically that of bit signed integers. Unsigned integers are converted to signed values in certain situations; this behavior is different from other programming manuall.
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August 12, ; Class links. Available Now. MetaHuman Book.. Piaget, J. New York: Free Press. P You can use forms to collect information from the people who visit your website. A form has input fields to remind users to enter information and limits choices to valid options to avoid incorrect data entry. Forms provide an easy way to collect required information from web page visitors. While designing and building a form, you write HTML to define the different objects that allow users to type or select information.
These objects can include text fields, radio buttons, check boxes and more. All forms should include a Submit button for sending the data to a web server for processing.
A form may contain several different types of input controls classified as data or text input controls. A text input control allows the user to enter text through the following: 1. A text control creates a text box that is used for a single line of input.
The text control has two attributes: 1. Size, which determines the number of characters that are displayed on the form. Maxlength, which specifies the maximum length of the input field. A password text box holds the password entered by a visitor. A radio control limits the web page visitor to only one choice from a list of choices. Each choice is preceded by a radio or option button, which typically appears as an open circle. A checkbox control allows a web page visitor to select more than one choice from a list of choices.
Each choice in a checkbox list can be either on or off. By default, all checkboxes are deselected. A select control creates a selection menu from which the visitor selects one or more choices. This prevents the visitor from having to type information into a text or textarea field.
A textarea control creates a field that allows multiple lines of input. Textarea fields are useful when an extensive amount of input is required from or desired by a web page visitor. The Submit button sends the information to the appropriate location for processing. A web page form must include a Submit button. The Reset button clears any input that was entered in the form, resetting the input controls back to the default.
A web page form must also include a Reset button. To set up a form, we need to specify two important information, i. Text boxes are normally used for entering names and addresses. Adding a default value to a text box A default text value appears in the text box when the user views the form. You can use default values to display instructions about the type of data required, give users an 50 example of the data you are looking for, or show a popular choice or response.
So, it prevents others from reading the information. The web browser displays the password box. When a user types characters in the password box, a bullet. A large text area is ideally used for getting comments or feedback from the visitors.
The web browser displays the text area. Another way to keep users from typing text into a large text area 52 If you want to display default text in a text area and do not want users to move or edit the text, you can use the READONLY attribute.
For example, you might use a large text area to explain something about your form or offer detailed instructions. While creating checkboxes, you need to specify some information:! You need to specify a word that describes the group of checkboxes. This is done using the NAME attribute. You need to specify a word that describes each checkbox. You need to specify the text you want to appear beside each checkbox on your web page.
Repeat steps from 1 to 6 for each checkbox you want to create and skip step 4 if you do not want other checkboxes to be selected. The web browser displays the checkboxes. While creating radio buttons, you need to specify some information.
You need to specify a word that describes the group of radio buttons by using the NAME attribute. You need to specify a word that describes each radio button. You need to specify the text you want to appear beside each radio button on your web page. The web browser displays the radio buttons. Giving radio buttons in a set of different names 54! When radio buttons have different NAME attributes, the browser treats them as parts of different radio button sets.
This means, the user is able to turn on more than one of them on at a time by clicking. Make sure all the radio buttons in a set have the same NAME attribute to avoid this. Normally, List Boxes are used to display lists of products, states, age groups, etc. While creating a List Box, you need to specify some information. You need to specify a word that describes the List Box. You need to specify a word that describes the content. You need to specify the text you want to appear for each List Box option on your web page.
If you want a List Box option. The web browser displays the List Box. This makes the List Box appear as a rectangular box that displays all the items in the list. If you prefer to save room on your form, keep the List Box size as 1. This creates a drop-down list. The web browser displays the Submit button.
When the user clicks the Submit button, the data in the form is processed and sent to. The web browser displays the Reset button. When the user clicks the Reset button, the form is reset to its original 56 setting.
Adding Multimedia You can incorporate multimedia elements into your own HTML pages to enhance your site message, illustrate a product or service, or simply entertain.
You can deliver multimedia files to your Website visitors in several ways. You can link to an external media file, embed the file into your page, or stream the file.
Make sure the files you use are in a format commonly used on the Web. Whenever possible, you should use small files. Large files take a long time to transfer to a computer. HTML5 features include native audio and video support without the need for Flash player. You need to set src attribute to identify the media source and include controls attribute so the user can play and pause the media.
The web browser displays the music controls and. In some browsers, you need to click on play button to start the video. P The web browser displays the video and starts playing it because we have given Autoplay option. PM When you place your mouse pointer on the video, controls will appear. The HTML5 audio and video tags can have a number of attributes to control the look and feel.
Altering the style of individual elements on a Web page is an easy Web development technique to use. With large Websites, however, it is better to use Cascading Style Sheets to change the style of the Web page elements.
For example, changing a heading color from black to red in a Website that contains hundreds of pages is much easier to do using a CSS instead of changing the individual headings. A style sheet is usually a text file that is separate from your HTML document.
Style sheets can also be internal, residing within your HTML code. A style sheet holds formatting codes that control your Web page appearance. You can use style sheets to change the look of any Web page element, such as paragraphs, lists, backgrounds, and more.
Anytime you want to apply the formatting from an external style sheet to an HTML document, you can attach the style sheet to the page using a LINK tag. Style sheet files have a. Controlling Multiple Pages. P You can link every page in your Website to a single style sheet. Any changes you make to the style sheet formatting are reflected in every HTML document linked to the sheet. By storing all the formatting information in one place, you can easily update the appearance of your site pages in one fell swoop.
This can be a real time-saver if your site consists of lots of pages. PM Style Sheet Syntax Style sheets are made up of rules, and each rule has two distinct parts: a selector and a declaration.
The selector specifies the element to which you want to apply a style rule, and the declaration specifies the formatting for the selector.
When applied to a page, this rule will make all level 2 headings appear in silver. With this tag, you can group large.
The DIV tag also allows you to define characteristics for several types of elements at once. For example, you can use the DIV tag to centre headings and paragraphs at the same time. Inline style sheet is used to apply a unique style to a single HTML element. It uses the style attribute of an HTML element. You might use an internal style sheet if your site consists of a single page. It can accept data input , manipulate the data tags, such as H1 H1 according to specified rules process , produce results output , and store headings , the results for future use.
P the integral part of our life. We can say that computers have entered into each and every walk of life either it is home, at work or at school. Most of our daily activities either involve the use of or depend upon the.
It can accept data input , manipulate the data characteristics for. The web browser displays the style specified for the web page. You can save the style sheet as a text file and assign the.
Set up a style sheet for multiple web pages 2 1. Create a new document in a text editor or word processor. Perform steps 2 to 5 of the section of previous page Internal Style Sheet to set up the information for style sheet. Click on File menu. Click on Save. The Save As dialog box 4 appears. Navigate to the folder that contains your HTML pages. Type a unique file name for your style sheet and a. In this example, we. P have given a name as stylesheet.
Your text editor saves the new style sheet. You can link multiple documents to the same style sheet to give all the pages in your site a consistent look and feel. It can accept data input , manipulate the data the style sheet.
The web browser displays the style specified for the 61 web page. The indent feature is often used to set a first-line indent for paragraphs. You can indent the first line of all the paragraphs of the text on your Web page that uses text-indent property in style sheet. First set up a style sheet. It can accept data input , in pixels example, 20px or 30px. The first line of all the.
P paragraphs in the text that uses the tag can be indented by the Web browser. Margins can be set for any Web page element with the margin property. This property can accept four values for the top, right, bottom, and left edges. You can include two values as an alternative to four values. The values can be measured in pixels px or as a percentage of the window. For example, margin: 50px would create a margin that is 50 pixels in width. Type margin-? You can see every element that uses the tag with the margin you specified is displayed in the Web browser.
If only one value is listed for the margin property, this value is applied equally to all four edges. It can accept 4 data input , manipulate the display as a margin.
The first paragraph now has margins on each side. Exercises A. Link P 1. Form c. Image 2. Radio b. Checkbox c. Select 3. Reset b. Close c. Submit 4. To add media to a website, IMG b. HREF c. SRC 5. Read Only b. Text c. The Reset button sends the information to the appropriate location for processing.
By adding multimedia, website messages will get enhanced. External style sheets exist within web page and can link one HTML document. Text Box Password Box Checkbox Radio Button Name the various input controls of a Form. Why do we add multimedia in web pages? What is the use of DIV tag?
Which attributes are used to control Audio and Video tag? What are the uses of Submit and Reset buttons in the Form? Abhinav has been asked to create a form in HTML to get feedback from the users about the web page created by him.
The feedbacks should be based on four choices— Excellent, Good, Average, and Poor. Which control, Radio control or Checkbox control, should he use in his form and why? She led the M d development of Google’s most successful products for more than 10 years and wa was appointed CEO of Yahoo in , at the age of PPrior to joining Yahoo, she spent 13 years at Google, where her work in pproduct development largely contributed to Gmail, a free e-mail service; C Chrome, a Web browser; Google Maps, a mapping and directions service; and 66 G Google Earth, which provided detailed satellite images of Earth.
In , Mayer resigned from YYahoo! Introduction Just think, what all things you need if you want to setup an IT company. First, you need an office space, hardware like computers and servers, and software to run the hardware. Then you need round-the-clock electricity for power and cooling system, and IT experts for managing the infrastructure.
All of these require a lot of capital expense. Again lot of capital expense. If your work decreases and you need to shut down your business, all this infrastructure will be of no use. You eliminate these headaches by using cloud computing. Cloud Computing P Cloud computing is a technology that provides resources and services over the Internet. Resources include email messages, schedules, music, photos, videos, games, websites, PM programs, web apps, servers, storage, and more.
Services include accessing software and storing files online. Instead of accessing these resources and services locally on your computer, you access them on the cloud. For example, some users choose cloud storage instead of storing data locally on a hard drive or other media. Cloud Storage is an Internet service that provides storage facility to computer users. Some of these resources and services are free, and some are paid.
If you are using paid service then you pay only for the service that you actually use. As a result, you need not make large investments in equipment or the staff to support it. People are choosing cloud computing for a variety of.
Cost Savings: The expense of software and high-end hardware shifts away from the user. Space Savings: Floor space required for servers and other hardware shifts away from the user.
Scalability: Provides the flexibility to increase or With cloud computing, users can access files 67 decrease computing requirements as and use applications from any device that per need. It is probably the most cost-efficient method to use, maintain and upgrade. It eliminates the capital expense of buying hardware and software and other infrastructure. It allows users to get large storage capacity for storing information. It allows users to access files on the Internet from any computer that has Internet access.
Users can allow others to access their files on the Internet so that others can listen to an audio file, watch a video clip, or view a photo instead of sending the file to them via an email message. It makes data backup easier and less expensive.
It allows users to view time-critical data and images immediately while away from the main office or location; for example, doctors can view X-ray images from another hospital, home, office or while on vacation. It provides up-to-date versions of software, as well as upgrades to servers and computer processing power. P Cloud Computing is an Internet technology that provides services to computer users.
There are service providers that provide various types of services for free or charge a fee. PM If a user doesn’t have storage on a personal computer, storage on the cloud can be utilized.
The same type of service is provided by Flickr. Google Docs is used to create documents online. Google Drive is used to store your work online. These types of services are available on the cloud. To use an application that run on the cloud, all that needs to be done is to login with a username and a password, customize it, and start using it.
That’s the power of cloud computing. This eliminates the traditional need of IT experts to manage these resources. With a cloud app, you just open a browser, log in, and start working. At the time of Diwali sale, which comes once in a year for a month, your demand increases. You need three more servers to cater your needs. If you purchase three more servers, what will happen after the sale?
You need to lock your servers for next year sale. This is a major blockage of large investment. With cloud computing, companies can scale up the resources as computing need increases and scale down the resources as computing need decreases.
This eliminates the need of large investments in the infrastructure, which may or may not remain active. The cloud enables many users to enter and use data within the particular software hosted in the cloud at the same time, from any location, and at any time. This is an attractive feature for multiple business offices and sales teams that are usually outside the office. P provides hosted services to the users within the organization. This is protected by a security to form a barrier against the outside world and to access hosted services from the private cloud.
The services provided in these clouds can be accessed by any organization or individual. The hybrid cloud allows the Internet to be used as a desktop. It is a combination of private and public cloud. Consumers and organizations rely on cloud computing services to manage IT infrastructure infrastructure as a service ,. It is the most flexible cloud computing model and allows companies to scale storage, processing power, or bandwidth, up or down as needed.
For example, retailers may need to increase these capabilities to accommodate additional traffic to their websites during holiday shopping seasons. When the season ends, retailers can easily reduce these settings. Users connect to the application over the Internet, usually through a web browser on their phone, tablet or PC. Google Docs Till now, you have learnt about cloud computing.
Now, you will work practically on cloud computing by using Google Docs. Google Docs or Google Documents is an online Office Suite, in which you can create, edit and share three types of documents. These include Document, Spreadsheet and Presentation. Each of the three document types has common operations applicable to them including loading, saving, renaming, and sharing.
The Document component of Google Docs allows you to create fully-featured, rich documents. The Spreadsheet component of Google Docs allows you a basic manipulation and formatting of spreadsheets, adding charts and the use of formula.
The Presentation component of Google Docs enables you to create professional looking presentations. The advantages of using Google Docs are given below:! Google Docs is free for the individual user. We can access the applications and all documents wherever we have access to the Internet and a web browser.
P There are no compatibility issues; everyone is on the same version. Documents are stored online, and there is no need to carry any media with us while we travel, including USB drives, discs, etc.
The data stored online is very much secure and well-protected. In the Google page, 1 click on Sign in. Google account page will appear.
Type your login ID and the password. Password will appear in the form of black dots. Your login ID and password 2 are same as that of your Gmail account. Kibana . IBM Lotus Sametime p2p file transfer. NRPE Nagios. Hazelcast default communication port . System Center Operations Manager . ProjectWise Server . TeamViewer remote desktop protocol . X11 —used between an X client and server over the network. Backup Exec Agent Browser [ citation needed ].
Blizzard ‘s Battle. Club Penguin Disney online game for kids, Used by some Blizzard games . ObjectDB database server . Thermo-Calc Software AB: Management of service nodes in a processing grid for thermodynamic calculations.
Sybase Advantage Database Server. Kubernetes API server . Sun Grid Engine Qmaster Service. Discord RPC . Port assignment for medical device communication in accordance to IEEE Syslog over TLS . Pylons project Pyramid Default Pylons Pyramid web service port. Speech-Dispatcher daemon [ citation needed ]. Windows Live FolderShare client. Microsoft Forefront Threat Management Gateway.
OpenFlow [ citation needed ]. BitTorrent Local Peer Discovery. Splashtop Remote server broadcast. BitTorrent beginning of range of ports used most often. Windows Live Messenger File transfer. QuickTime Streaming Server . Voicemeeter VBAN network audio protocol . Database mirroring endpoints . Zimbra LMTP [mailbox]—local mail delivery. Enemy Territory: Quake Wars.
Peercast [ citation needed ]. Zimbra mysql [mailbox] [ citation needed ]. Zimbra mysql [logger] [ citation needed ]. Sibelius License Server.
Web control interface for Folding home v7. Rise: The Vieneo Province. Neo4J Server webadmin . Default port used by Open iT Server. Saratoga file transfer protocol  . Populous: The Beginning server. Instrument Neutral Distributed Interface. Delivery Optimization for Windows 10 .
Bolt database connection. Killing Floor. Oracle Cluster File System 2 [ citation needed ]. Windows backdoor program tini. Just Cause 2: Multiplayer Mod Server [ citation needed ]. Unreal Tournament series default server [ citation needed ]. Default used by Smartlaunch Internet Cafe Administration  software.
PowerSchool Gradebook Server [ citation needed ]. Default for YSFlight server . Docker Swarm communication among nodes . Used by SilverBluff Studios for communication between servers and clients. Atlassian Bitbucket default port [ citation needed ]. DynamoDB Local . Django Development Webserver . Python 3 http.
Tomcat remote shutdown . Proxmox Virtual Environment admin web interface . Quest AppAssure 5 Engine . Proxmox Backup Server admin web interface. Alternative port for HTTP. See also ports 80 and Matrix homeserver federation over HTTP . Apache JServ Protocol ajp13 [ citation needed ]. Buildbot web status page [ citation needed ]. OpenERP 5. Killing Floor web administration interface [ citation needed ]. Apache Tomcat . Atlassian JIRA applications . Asterisk management access via HTTP [ citation needed ].
Splunk daemon management . Box automatic TR configuration . Atlassian Confluence . Coral Content Distribution Network legacy; 80 and now supported . Matrix identity server [ citation needed ]. CouchBase web administration . CouchBase API . Bloomberg Terminal . Bitcoin . Filestash server default . Shadowsocks proxy server [ citation needed ]. MineOs WebUi. Adobe ColdFusion built-in web server .
Freegate , an Internet anonymizer and proxy tool . Tibero database [ citation needed ]. Ultra Fractal , a fractal generation and rendering software application — distributed calculations over networked computers  .
Default port of a local GUN relay peer that the Internet Archive  and others use as a decentralized mirror for censorship resistance. Voice channel of TeamSpeak 2 ,  a proprietary Voice over IP protocol targeted at gamers [ citation needed ]. Opera Unite , an extensible framework for web applications  . Freenet web UI localhost only [ citation needed ]. MAMP . Apache Solr . Alternate port for I2P Monotone Proxy  [ jargon ].
I2P Monotone Proxy  [ jargon ]. SonarQube Web Server . Play Framework web server . Hadoop NameNode default port. QBittorrent ‘s embedded torrent tracker default port . ETL Service Manager . Microsoft SharePoint authoring environment. Tor network default. Tomcat in standalone mode . Tor often used. Apache Cassandra native protocol clients. Prometheus metrics server. SqueezeCenter control CLI. Transmission BitTorrent client Web Interface. PDL Data Stream, used for printing to certain network printers .
Tor Browser. Elasticsearch  —default Elasticsearch port. Sony PlayStation RemotePlay . Used by all Supercell games such as Brawl Stars and Clash of Clans, mobile freemium strategy video games. MooseFS distributed file system — master control port . MooseFS distributed file system — master command port . MooseFS distributed file system — master client port . MooseFS distributed file system — Chunkservers . Bitcoin Lightning Network . Tripwire —File Integrity Monitoring Software .
Tvheadend HTTP server web interface . Splunk port for communication between the forwarders and indexers. Urchin Web Analytics [ citation needed ]. Dash cryptocurrency . Ubiquiti UniFi access points broadcast to Could we have gotten the same feedback from our customers with half as many networks?
With only three? With only one? Since the customers of all IM networks found our product equally unattractive, the level of learning would have been the same, but our effort would have been dramatically less. Is it possible that we could have discovered how awed our assumptions were without building anything? For example, what if we simply had o ered customers the opportunity to download the product from us solely on the basis of its proposed features before building anything?
Note that this is di erent from asking customers what they want. We could have conducted an experiment, o ering customers the chance to try something and then measuring their behavior. Such thought experiments were extremely disturbing to me because they undermined my job description. As the head of product development, I thought my job was to ensure the timely delivery of high-quality products and features.
But if many of those features were a waste of time, what should I be doing instead? How could we avoid this waste? The e ort that is not absolutely necessary for learning what customers want can be eliminated. Thus, validated learning is backed up by empirical data collected from real customers. As I can attest, anybody who fails in a startup can claim that he or she has learned a lot from the experience. They can tell a compelling story. In fact, in the story of IMVU so far, you might have noticed something missing.
What evidence did we have? Certainly our stories of failure were entertaining, and we had fascinating theories about what we had done wrong and what we needed to do to create a more successful product.
However, the proof did not come until we put those theories into practice and built subsequent versions of the product that showed superior results with actual customers.
The next few months are where the true story of IMVU begins, not with our brilliant assumptions and strategies and whiteboard gamesmanship but with the hard work of discovering what customers really wanted and adjusting our product and strategy to meet those desires. As we came to understand our customers better, we were able to improve our products. As we did that, the fundamental metrics of our business changed. In the early days, despite our e orts to improve the product, our metrics were stubbornly at.
Each day, roughly the same number of customers would buy the product, and that number was pretty close to zero despite the many improvements. However, once we pivoted away from the original strategy, things started to change. Positive changes in metrics became the quantitative validation that our learning was real.
This was critically important because we could show our stakeholders—employees, investors, and ourselves—that we were making genuine progress, not deluding ourselves. We were able to measure the di erence in behavior between the two groups. Not only were the people in the experimental group more likely to sign up for the product, they were more likely to become long-term paying customers. We had plenty of failed experiments too. Unfortunately, customers who got that VIP treatment were no more likely to become active or paying customers.
After our pivot and many failed experiments, we nally gured out this insight: customers wanted to use IMVU to make new friends online. Our customers intuitively grasped something that we were slow to realize. Once we formed this hypothesis, our experiments became much more likely to produce positive results.
Whenever we would change the product to make it easier for people to nd and keep new friends, we discovered that customers were more likely to engage. This is true startup productivity: systematically guring out the right things to build. These were just a few experiments among hundreds that we ran week in and week out as we started to learn which customers would use the product and why.
Unfortunately, because of the traditional way businesses are evaluated, this is a dangerous situation. The irony is that it is often easier to raise money or acquire other resources when you have zero revenue, zero customers, and zero traction than when you have a small amount. Zero invites imagination, but small numbers invite questions about whether large numbers will ever materialize. Everyone knows or thinks he or she knows stories of products that achieved breakthrough success overnight.
As long as nothing has been released and no data have been collected, it is still possible to imagine overnight success in the future. Small numbers pour cold water on that hope. This phenomenon creates a brutal incentive: postpone getting any data until you are certain of success. However, releasing a product and hoping for the best is not a good plan either, because this incentive is real. When we launched IMVU, we were ignorant of this problem. In fact, at one point, some investors were seriously recommending that we pull the product out of the market and return to stealth mode.
Fortunately, as we pivoted and experimented, incorporating what we learned into our product development and marketing e orts, our numbers started to improve. But not by much! On the one hand, we were lucky to see a growth pattern that started to look like the famous hockey stick graph. On the other hand, the graph went up only to a few thousand dollars per month.
These early graphs, although promising, were not by themselves su cient to combat the loss of faith caused by our early failure, and we lacked the language of validated learning to provide an alternative concept to rally around.
We were quite fortunate that some of our early investors understood its importance and were willing to look beyond our small gross numbers to see the real progress we were making. Thus, we can mitigate the waste that happens because of the audacity of zero with validated learning.
We could have tried marketing gimmicks, bought a Super Bowl ad, or tried amboyant public relations PR as a way of juicing our gross numbers. That would have given investors the illusion of traction, but only for a short time. Eventually, the fundamentals of the business would win out and the PR bump would pass. Because we would have squandered precious resources on theatrics instead of progress, we would have been in real trouble. Sixty million avatars later, IMVU is still going strong.
Its legacy is not just a great product, an amazing team, and promising nancial results but a whole new way of measuring the progress of startups. Every time I teach the IMVU story, students have an overwhelming temptation to focus on the tactics it illustrates: launching a low-quality early prototype, charging customers from day one, and using low-volume revenue targets as a way to drive accountability. These are useful techniques, but they are not the moral of the story. There are too many exceptions.
Not every kind of customer will accept a low-quality prototype, for example. If the students are more skeptical, they may argue that the techniques do not apply to their industry or situation, but work only because IMVU is a software company, a consumer Internet business, or a non-mission-critical application.
None of these takeaways is especially useful. The Lean Startup is not a collection of individual tactics. It is a principled approach to new product development.
The only way to make sense of its recommendations is to understand the underlying principles that make them work. The tactics from the IMVU story may or may not make sense in your particular business. Instead, the way forward is to learn to see every startup in any industry as a grand experiment.
In other words, we need the scienti c method. In the Lean Startup model, every product, every feature, every marketing campaign—everything a startup does—is understood to be an experiment designed to achieve validated learning.
How should we prioritize across the many features we could build? What can be changed safely, and what might anger customers?
What should we work on next? This is one of the most important lessons of the scienti c method: if you cannot fail, you cannot learn. A true experiment follows the scienti c method.
It begins with a clear hypothesis that makes predictions about what is supposed to happen. It then tests those predictions empirically. It is known as one of the most successful, customer-friendly e-commerce businesses in the world, but it did not start that way.
Founder Nick Swinmurn was frustrated because there was no central online site with a great selection of shoes. He envisioned a new and superior retail experience. Swinmurn could have waited a long time, insisting on testing his complete vision complete with warehouses, distribution partners, and the promise of signi cant sales. Many early e-commerce pioneers did just that, including infamous dot-com failures such as Webvan and Pets.
Instead, he started by running an experiment. His hypothesis was that customers were ready and willing to buy shoes online. To test it, he began by asking local shoe stores if he could take pictures of their inventory. In exchange for permission to take the pictures, he would post the pictures online and come back to buy the shoes at full price if a customer bought them online.
Zappos began with a tiny, simple product. It was designed to answer one question above all: is there already su cient demand for a superior online shopping experience for shoes? However, a well-designed startup experiment like the one Zappos began with does more than test a single aspect of a business plan. In the course of testing this rst assumption, many other assumptions were tested as well. To sell the shoes, Zappos had to interact with customers: taking payment, handling returns, and dealing with customer support.
This is decidedly di erent from market research. If Zappos had relied on existing market research or conducted a survey, it could have asked what customers thought they wanted. It had more accurate data about customer demand because it was observing real customer behavior, not asking hypothetical questions. It put itself in a position to interact with real customers and learn about their needs.
For example, the business plan might call for discounted pricing, but how are customer perceptions of the product affected by the discounting strategy? It allowed itself to be surprised when customers behaved in unexpected ways, revealing information Zappos might not have known to ask about.
For example, what if customers returned the shoes? It also put the company in a position to observe, interact with, and learn from real customers and partners. This qualitative learning is a necessary companion to quantitative testing. Although the early e orts were decidedly small-scale, that did not prevent the huge Zappos vision from being realized.
In fact, in Zappos was acquired by the e-commerce giant Amazon. A designer could help a nonpro t with a new website design. A team of engineers could wire a school for Internet access. Most of the volunteering has been of the low- impact variety, involving manual labor, even when the volunteers were highly trained experts. This is the kind of corporate initiative undertaken every day at companies around the world. On the surface it seems to be suited to traditional management and planning.
However, I hope the discussion in Chapter 2 has prompted you to be a little suspicious. Most important, how much does she really know about how to change the behavior of hundreds of thousand people in more than countries? Looked at that way, her plan seems full of untested assumptions—and a lot of vision.
In accordance with traditional management practices, Barlerin is spending time planning, getting buy-in from various departments and other managers, and preparing a road map of initiatives for the rst eighteen months of her project. She also has a strong accountability framework with metrics for the impact her project should have on the company over the next four years. Like many entrepreneurs, she has a business plan that lays out her intentions nicely. Yet despite all that work, she is—so far—creating one-o wins and no closer to knowing if her vision will be able to scale.
Perhaps longtime employees would feel a desire to rea rm their values of giving back to the community by volunteering. A second assumption could be that they would nd it more satisfying and therefore more sustainable to use their actual workplace skills in a volunteer capacity, which would have a greater impact on behalf of the organizations to which they donated their time.
The Lean Startup model o ers a way to test these hypotheses rigorously, immediately, and thoroughly. Strategic planning takes months to complete; these experiments could begin immediately. By starting small, Caroline could prevent a tremendous amount of waste down the road without compromising her overall vision. Break It Down The rst step would be to break down the grand vision into its component parts.
The two most important assumptions entrepreneurs make are what I call the value hypothesis and the growth hypothesis.
The value hypothesis tests whether a product or service really delivers value to customers once they are using it. We could survey them to get their opinion, but that would not be very accurate because most people have a hard time assessing their feelings objectively.
Experiments provide a more accurate gauge. What could we see in real time that would serve as a proxy for the value participants were gaining from volunteering? We could nd opportunities for a small number of employees to volunteer and then look at the retention rate of those employees.
How many of them sign up to volunteer again? When an employee voluntarily invests their time and attention in this program, that is a strong indicator that they find it valuable.
For the growth hypothesis, which tests how new customers will discover a product or service, we can do a similar analysis. Once the program is up and running, how will it spread among the employees, from initial early adopters to mass adoption throughout the company?
A likely way this program could expand is through viral growth. If that is true, the most important thing to measure is behavior: would the early participants actively spread the word to other employees? In this case, a simple experiment would involve taking a very small number—a dozen, perhaps—of existing long-term employees and providing an exceptional volunteer opportunity for them.
The point is not to nd the average customer but to nd early adopters: the customers who feel the need for the product most acutely. Those customers tend to be more forgiving of mistakes and are especially eager to give feedback. Next, using a technique I call the concierge minimum viable product described in detail in Chapter 6 , Caroline could make sure the first few participants had an experience that was as good as she could make it, completely aligned with her vision.
Unlike in a focus group, her goal would be to measure what the customers actually did. For example, how many of the rst volunteers actually complete their volunteer assignments? How many volunteer a second time? How many are willing to recruit a colleague to participate in a subsequent volunteer activity?
Additional experiments can expand on this early feedback and learning. For example, if the growth model requires that a certain percentage of participants share their experiences with colleagues and encourage their participation, the degree to which that takes place can be tested even with a very small sample of people.
If ten people complete the rst experiment, how many do we expect to volunteer again? If they are asked to recruit a colleague, how many do we expect will do so? Remember that these are supposed to be the kinds of early adopters with the most to gain from the program.
Put another way, what if all ten early adopters decline to volunteer again? That would be a highly signi cant—and very negative—result. We already have a cohort of people to talk to as well as knowledge about their actual behavior: the participants in the initial experiment. This entire experiment could be conducted in a matter of weeks, less than one-tenth the time of the traditional strategic planning process.
Also, it can happen in parallel with strategic planning while the plan is still being formulated. Even when experiments produce a negative result, those failures prove instructive and can in uence the strategy. For example, what if no volunteers can be found who are experiencing the con ict of values within the organization that was such an important assumption in the business plan? If this or any other experiment is successful, it allows the manager to get started with his or her campaign: enlisting early adopters, adding employees to each further experiment or iteration, and eventually starting to build a product.
By the time that product is ready to be distributed widely, it will already have established customers. It will have solved real problems and o er detailed speci cations for what needs to be built. Unlike a traditional strategic planning or market research process, this speci cation will be rooted in feedback on what is working today rather than in anticipation of what might work tomorrow.
To see this in action, consider an example from Kodak. Do consumers recognize that they have the problem you are trying to solve? If there was a solution, would they buy it? Would they buy it from us? Can we build a solution for that problem? For example, Kodak Gallery o ered wedding cards with gilded text and graphics on its site.
Those designs were popular with customers who were getting married, and so the team redesigned the cards to be used at other special occasions, such as for holidays. They were also hard to produce. Cook realized that they had done the work backward. In a break with the past, Cook led the group through a process of identifying risks and assumptions before building anything and then testing those assumptions experimentally. There were two main hypotheses underlying the proposed event album: 1.
The team assumed that customers would want to create the albums in the first place. It assumed that event participants would upload photos to event albums created by friends or colleagues.
The Kodak Gallery team built a simple prototype of the event album. It lacked many features—so many, in fact, that the team was reluctant to show it to customers. However, even at that early stage, allowing customers to use the prototype helped the team refute their hypotheses.
First, creating an album was not as easy as the team had predicted; none of the early customers were able to create one. Further, customers complained that the early product version lacked essential features. Those negative results demoralized the team. Cook explained that even though the product was missing features, the project was not a failure. The initial product— aws and all— con rmed that users did have the desire to create event albums, which was extremely valuable information.
Where customers complained about missing features, this suggested that the team was on the right track. The team now had early evidence that those features were in fact important. Through a beta launch the team continued to learn and iterate. While the early users were enthusiastic and the numbers were promising, the team made a major discovery. Through the use of online surveying tool KISSinsights, the team learned that many customers wanted to be able to arrange the order of pictures before they would invite others to contribute.
In a world where marketing launch dates were often set months in advance, waiting until the team had really solved the problem was a break from the past.
This process represented a dramatic change for Kodak Gallery; employees were used to being measured on their progress at completing tasks. Most people either hand wash their clothing at home or pay a Dhobi to do it for them. The result? Clothes are returned in about ten days and are probably not that clean. As the brand manager of the Tide and Pantene brands for India and ASEAN countries, he thought he could make laundry services available to people who previously could not a ord them.
VLS began a series of experiments to test its business assumptions. For their rst experiment, VLS mounted a consumer-grade laundry machine on the back of a pickup truck parked on a street corner in Bangalore. The entrepreneurs did not clean the laundry on the truck, which was more for marketing and show, but took it o -site to be cleaned and brought it back to their customers by the end of the day.
The VLS team continued the experiment for a week, parking the truck on di erent street corners, digging deeper to discover all they could about their potential customers. They wanted to know how they could encourage people to come to the truck. Did cleaning speed matter? Was cleanliness a concern? What were people asking for when they left their laundry with them? They discovered that customers were happy to give them their laundry to clean.
However, those customers were suspicious of the washing machine mounted on the back of the truck, concerned that VLS would take their laundry and run. To address that concern, VLS created a slightly more substantial mobile cart that looked more like a kiosk. VLS also experimented with parking the carts in front of a local minimarket chain.
Further iterations helped VLS gure out which services people were most interested in and what price they were willing to pay. They discovered that customers often wanted their clothes ironed and were willing to pay double the price to get their laundry back in four hours rather than twenty-four hours. The kiosk used Western detergents and was supplied daily with fresh clean water delivered by VLS.
Since then, the Village Laundry Service has grown substantially, with fourteen locations operational in Bangalore, Mysore, and Mumbai. And almost 60 percent of the business is coming from repeat customers.
We have serviced more than 10, customers in the past year alone across all the outlets. This agency is tasked with protecting American citizens from predatory lending by nancial services companies such as credit card companies, student lenders, and payday loan o ces. The plan calls for it to accomplish this by setting up a call center where trained case workers will eld calls directly from the public.
Left to its own devices, a new government agency would probably hire a large sta with a large budget to develop a plan that is expensive and time-consuming. However, the CFPB is considering doing things differently. President Obama tasked his chief technology o cer, Aneesh Chopra, with collecting ideas for how to set up the new startup agency, and that is how I came to be involved.
My suggestion was drawn straight from the principles of this chapter: treat the CFPB as an experiment, identify the elements of the plan that are assumptions rather than facts, and gure out ways to test them. Using these insights, we could build a minimum viable product and have the agency up and running—on a micro scale— long before the official plan was set in motion. The number one assumption underlying the current plan is that once Americans know they can call the CFPB for help with nancial fraud and abuse, there will be a signi cant volume of citizens who do that.
This sounds reasonable, as it is based on market research about the amount of fraud that a ects Americans each year. However, despite all that research, it is still an assumption. If the actual call volume di ers markedly from that in the plan, it will require signi cant revision. What if they have very di erent notions of what problems are important?
What if they call the agency seeking help for problems that are outside its purview? To start experimenting immediately, the agency could start with the creation of a simple hotline number, using one of the new breed of low-cost and fast setup platforms such as Twilio. In the rst version, the prompts could be drawn straight from the existing research.
Instead of a caseworker on the line, each prompt could o er the caller useful information about how to solve her or his problem. Instead of marketing this hotline to the whole country, the agency could run the experiment in a much more limited way: start with a small geographic area, perhaps as small as a few city blocks, and instead of paying for expensive television or radio advertising to let people know about the service, use highly targeted advertising.
Flyers on billboards, newspaper advertisements to those blocks, or specially targeted online ads would be a good start. Since the target area is so small, they could a ord to pay a premium to create a high level of awareness in the target zone. The total cost would remain quite small. But it is also not very expensive. This product could be built in a matter of days or weeks, and the whole experiment probably would cost only a few thousand dollars. What we would learn from this experiment would be invaluable.
The agency could begin to test marketing messages: What motivates people to call? It could start to extrapolate real-world trends: What percentage of people in the target area actually call? The extrapolation would not be perfect, but it would establish a baseline behavior that would be far more accurate than market research.
Most important, this product would serve as a seed that could germinate into a much more elaborate service. With this beginning, the agency could engage in a continuous process of improvement, slowly but surely adding more and better solutions.
Eventually, it would sta the hotline with caseworkers, perhaps at rst addressing only one category of problems, to give the caseworkers the best chance of success.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or as expressed by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate Reprographics Rights Organization s.
P Photoshop, Animate, Stykz, etc. The Publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. In the educated world, knowing about computer and its intricacies is no more a luxury, but a necessity.
The name of this series symbolizes memory unit of computer. You may have heard somebody talking about AI, social engineering, cloud computing, app development, Raspberry Pi — a lot of jargon in that talk might have seemed Latin and Greek to you, but not in this series. In this series, the concepts of computer will be as clear as you are watching streaming media without any buffering. This series is based on the latest software packages and operating system programs such as Microsoft Office and Windows To produce a visually appealing and easy to understand book, we have artfully combined the latest technology, pictures, drawings and text in this series.
Most of the pictures in this series show a step-by-step pedagogy, which simplifies the more complex computer concepts. The terms. P and examples described in this series are those which everyone will come across while using computers in school as well as at home. To make the chapters exciting, projects have been given that encourage the students to try out for themselves, to instill in them the confidence before they embark on making their own project PM using that software.
Each project in the chapter presents a practical problem and complete solution in an easy-to-understand approach. Each of the tasks required to complete a project is identified throughout the development of the project. In a Nutshell is the section which summarizes the whole chapter and the Self-Evaluation section examines the students’ understanding of computer concepts. Different types of exercises and activities have been included at the end of every chapter to inculcate the students with an urge to seek answers.
The series also throws light on the cybercrimes and cyber security issues, thereby encouraging students to be good digital citizens. It includes all the software programs required to be at par with the current global education system. The contents in this series are hand-picked by a panel of experts, including Ms. Nisha Batra, Jr. Richa Verma, Sr. This selection of contents will answer the need of students and shape their minds to stand apart from the crowd.
Humble acknowledgment to Prof. Pant for his invaluable contribution. A stalwart in the world of computer technology, he is an internationally renowned expert specialising in pedagogy, technology and the development of tools for the future learners. We welcome constructive suggestions and any feedback to make this series more comprehensive, relevant, updated and useful both for the teachers and the learners. You may mail us at editor pmpublishers. Communication Communication is important for people to share their views and opinions.
It is a process in which two or more people share their knowledge, information, resources and expertise among themselves. Communication involves a sender transmitting an idea, information, or feeling to a receiver. Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information that the sender intends to give. P Computers were stand-alone devices when they were first introduced. With the rapid increase in the uses of computers, the manufacturers began to design hardware and software that would allow the computers to communicate with one another.
Computer communication is described as a process in which one computer transfers data, instructions, and information to another computer s. Earlier, only large computers had PM communication capabilities.
Today, even the smaller computers and devices can communicate directly with one another, with hundreds of computers on a company network, or with millions of other computers around the globe—often via Internet. Some communications involve cables and wires; others are sent wirelessly through the air.
For successful computer communication, you need the following components: SENDER: It is a sending device that initiates to send data, instructions or information. It can be a computer or mobile device. It can be cables, microwave stations, or satellites.
Without protocol, two devices may be connected, but cannot transfer or exchange the data. A protocol may define data format, coding schemes, and the sequence in which data transfers among devices.
For example, a person who knows only English language cannot communicate with another who knows only Hindi language. For communication between two persons, the knowledge of same language is a must. Protocol 5 Communication Channel. People connect computers to a network for a variety of reasons, including the ability to share hardware, software, data and information, as well as to facilitate communication.
Computer Network A computer network can be as small as two computers connected to each other, or it may be spread over different parts of a city, or covering the whole world. Sharing resources saves time and money. Data And Information Sharing In a network environment, any authorized user can use a computer to access data and information stored on other computers in the network.
A large company, for example. P might store a database of customer information on the hard disk of the server. Any authorized person can connect to the network and can access this database. The capability of providing access, and storage of data and information on shared storage devices is an important feature of network.
Data and Information Sharing PM Hardware Sharing In a network environment, each computer on a network can access and use hardware available on the network. Suppose, there are a number of personal HUB computers on a network and each one needs to use a laser printer. Hardware Sharing network, whenever he or she needs it. Software Sharing Network lets people gain access to software programs stored on a central computer.
Using their own computers, individuals can gain access to and work with these programs. Software Sharing. Both business houses and consumers use EFT. Examples include, use of credit and debit cards, direct deposit of funds into bank, online banking, and online bill payment.
NETWORK USER When your computer is a part of a network, where two or more computers are connected using a cable or some other communication channels, you can become a network user and can share files, folders, and computer hardware such as printers attached from one computer to other computers.
These usual resources are referred to as local resources. Other less powerful computers connected to a server are called workstations. Each workstation contributes equally in the network and is often called peer. Each one of these is discussed below:. P A local area network LAN is a network that connects the computers and the devices in a limited geographical area, such as home, school PM computer laboratory, office building or closely positioned group of buildings.
These computers are usually within to meters away from LAN each other. If you have a home network with two or more computers, or if you are at your school where more than 20 computers are connected to each other, then you are on a LAN. LAN can either work with cables and hubs or wirelessly. Two or more LANs that are relatively far apart are typically connected by WAN so that users and computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in other locations.
Telephone companies, cable television operators, and other organizations use MAN network. You can transfer PAN. P files and songs from laptop to a smartphone using PAN. Network Hardware PM Network hardware consists of physical devices used on a network. All networks need network hardware to function. When computers are linked, the people using the computers can work more efficiently.
Computers connected to a network do not have to be the same type. Network interface cards mediate between the computer and the physical media such as cables over which data travels. The most common connectors are: HUB: A hub offers a central location where all the cables on a network meet. It allows you to 8 connect multiple computers to a single network. It also provides the connection for all the computers on a network, so that they can exchange data.
Many types of network structures are now using hubs as the primary method of connecting computers. A switch receives data from many directions and then forwards it to one or more destinations. A switch is considered more advanced than a hub because switch sends the data to a device that needs or requests for it. Switches can be used in place of hubs.
ROUTER: A router is a device that connects multiple computers together and transmits data to its correct destination on a network through a process known as routing.
Information, shared files, and other network data travel through the network cables. A fiber metal or fiber-optic cable is used to connect computers and other devices on. These cables are insulated with special PM Any part of a computer system or a network such as a disk drive, printer, or memory that can be allotted to a program or a process, while it is running, is a resource. Communication Channels All networks are linked to each other through communication channels.
These are the medium on which the data, instructions, or information can travel. When you send data from a computer or mobile device, the signal. Most commonly used media are physical and wireless. LANs often use physical transmission media. There are three main types of physical transmission media. They are twisted pair cable, coaxial cable and fiber optic cable.
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Similarly, many of the official assignments refer to protocols that were never or are no longer in common use. This article lists port numbers and their associated protocols that have experienced significant uptake.
On Unix-like operating systems, a process must execute with superuser privileges to be able to bind a network socket to an IP address using one of the well-known ports.
They are assigned by IANA for specific service upon application by a requesting entity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This article gives self-sourcing popular culture examples without describing their significance in the context of the article.
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October Learn how and when to remove this template message. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by adding missing items with reliable sources. See also: Ephemeral port. At the same time, the subsequent adoption of the usage of as an SSL-enabled SMTP submission port, even though that the original registration did not envision that usage and despite смотрите подробнее fact that it was registered to another service has endured.
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. Retrieved 28 March August filemaker pro 14 the missing manual pdf free BCP RFC Retrieved Port numbers below so-called “low numbered” ports can only be bound to by root Well-known port numbers specified by the IANA are normally located in filemaker pro 14 the missing manual pdf free root-only space.
Archived from the original on November Remote Job Entry Protocol. May Echo Protocol. STD Apple published September Stream Control Transmission Protocol. Discard Protocol.
Microsoft TechNet. The default port читать далее the wake-up transmission is UDP port 9. The ps -ef and netstat -a commands are bound to TCP ports 11 and 15, respectively. Active На этой странице. Daytime Protocol. Quote of the Day Protocol. Message Send Protocol. Message Send Protocol 2. Character Generator Protocol. June File Transfer Protocol specification.
IEN October File Transfer Protocol. STD 9. Telnet Protocol Specification. STD 8. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Palo Alto Networks. Retrieved 14 September Time Protocol.
Internet Name Server. July I-D opsawg-tacacs Xerox Network Filemaker pro 14 the missing manual pdf free. DNS Implementation and Specification. March Assigned Numbers. January TFTP Protocol revision 2.
The Internet Gopher Protocol a distributed document search and retrieval protocol. This protocol assumes a reliable data stream; TCP is assumed. The Finger User Information Protocol. In Thomson, Martin ed.
I-D ietf-quic-transport. Clifford September When contacting a Kerberos server KDC Acknowledgements to John Kohl et al. April TCP port is reserved for hosts which implement this standard. Initially, the server посетить страницу источник starts the Ph service by listening on TCP port The Remote User Telnet Service. February Post Office Protocol: Version 2. This protocol assumes a reliable data stream such as provided by TCP or any similar protocol.
Post Office Protocol: Version 3. Post Office Protocol – Version 3. Johns, Michael C. Identification Protocol. Acknowledgement is given to Dan Bernstein in section 7, “Acknowledgements”, page 8. The Identification Protocol a. Authentication Filemaker pro 14 the missing manual pdf free.
The Authentication Server Protocol provides a means to determine the identity of a user of a particular TCP connection. Postel, Jon ed. Simple File Transfer Protocol. Network News Transfer Protocol.
NNTP specifies a protocol for the distribution, inquiry, retrieval, and posting of news articles When used via Internet TCP, the contact port assigned for this service is ссылка на страницу Acknowledgements to Internet Activities Board in section 2, “Acknowledgements”, page 4. The Internet Message Access Protocol The BFTP program Simple Gateway Monitoring Protocol.
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P Filtering by form enables you to filter by multiple fields and specify criteria for as many fields as you like. An AND combination finds records where both criteria are met; an OR combination finds records where at least one of the criteria is met. Open the table if it is 2 3 not already opened. Click on Home tab on 4 Ribbon. Click on Advanced button. Click on Filter By Form. Update Your Knowledge Update Your Knowledge To sort by more than one column, highlight the Filter by Form can be advantageous when the table columns by clicking and dragging the mouse over is too large and it is difficult to find the record that 24 the field labels, and select the sort method.
The Filter by Form window appears, which looks like an empty replica of your table. Click on Dance field. A drop down arrow appears in the field where the cursor is placed.
Click on the drop down arrow button of Dance to see a list of values used in this field. Select Kathak from the. Click on the Name field, click on the Name list arrow, and select the name 9 of student Parveen from 8 the list. Click on the Toggle Filter button. You can create an AND criteria statement specifying more than one criteria on the same Filter by Form tab. For example, you could filter for Name of the student who is learning Kathak AND 25 who is availing transportation by private van.
Open the table if it is not already opened. A Filter by Form sheet opens. Open the list for a field and select the value that 5 you want. Click on the Or tab. A blank Filter by Form page PM 8 opens.
Repeat step 5 to select another criterion. Click on Toggle Filter to apply the filter. Access will apply the filter and show you the result. Update Your Knowledge If you have previously performed a filter operation, the last filter that you ran appears in the form, for your Keyboard Shortcuts convenience. For setting relationship, you need at least two tables. You have already created Students Detail table in previous chapter.
Similarly, you need to create one more table. In this example, we have created one more table named Dance Practice. For a relationship to exist between two tables, they must have a common field. The two tables could be joined or related by that field. The Field Type must be the same in both tables for a relationship to exist. Dance Practice Table In most relationships, the primary key field in one table is related to a field in the other table that is not its primary key.
In one table, the field contains unique values, whereas in the other table it does not. The relationship field in the other table is called foreign key. P Relationships are created and managed in a special database view called Relationships window. You can create relationships between tables from there, dragging a field from one table onto a field from another. Click on Database Tools tab. Click on Relationships button 2 to display the Relationships window.
If any relationship 3 already exists between the tables in your database, a box for each table appears in the window. The Show Table dialog box may also appear, listing all the tables in your database. If the Show Table dialog box does not appear, click on Show Table button to display 27 the dialog box. Click on a table you want to add to the Relationships window. Click on the Add button to add the table to the window.
Repeat the steps 4 and 5 for each table that you want to add. When you finish adding tables to the Relationships window, click on the Close 5 button to remove the Show 7 Table dialog box. The Relationships window displays a box for each table. P PM Now you can create a relationship between tables by identifying the matching fields in the tables. Place your mouse pointer over the field you want to use to create a relationship with another table.
Drag the field with mouse over the other table until a 9 small box appears over the matching field. The Edit Relationships dialog box will appear. Update Your Knowledge 28 Update Your Knowledge The quickest way to make changes in Datasheet view is through the shortcut menu that comes A Primary key field cannot be deleted up when you right-click a field header. Relationship Type displays 10 the type of relationship. Click on the Create button to create a relationship. A line connects the fields in the two tables to show that the relationship is created.
Click on the line for the relationship you want to delete. Press the Delete key from 1 the keyboard. Click on the Yes button to permanently delete the relationship. Update Your Knowledge!
A relationship works by matching the data in the key field. Primary key is a key which is used to identify the records uniquely. In a table, there can be only one Primary key. Primary key does not allow to enter duplicate values, and primary key field can’t be left blank. Creating Forms A Form is a view of one or more tables that are designed to be used for data entry and editing. By creating forms, you can make your database more user-friendly for inexperienced users who are likely to enter and edit records in it.
Creating a basic form 1. In the navigation Pane, click on 2 the table you want to use as a 3 form. Click on the Create tab. Click on Form. The form appears.
P The default form shows the fields as fill-in boxes for one record at a time. This makes it PM easier for users to enter a new record without getting confused by the multiple rows and columns of a datasheet view.
Moving Through the Records You can move through the records in a Form to review or edit any information you have made. To move to the specific record, drag the mouse pointer over the number of the current record and then type the number of 1 the record you want to move and press Enter key.
To start a new blank record, 2 click on New record button. Split Form: This form shows two parts. Upper part shows the Form, and lower part shows the datasheet for the table. Datasheet: This Form just looks like a regular datasheet, but it is actually a form. It is useful when you want to show a datasheet on a subform. Modal Dialog: This form is useful for creating navigational menu systems. This form looks just like a dialog box, but it is actually a form.
Creating a Split Form 1. In the navigation Pane, 2 click on the table you 3 want to use as a form. Click on More Forms. Click on Split Form. P Upper part of the screen shows the Form. PM The lower part of the screen shows the datasheet for the table. In Design View, each object appears as a separate, editable element in the Form. In Layout View, you can re-arrange the Form controls and adjust their sizes directly on the Form. In Design View 1.
Open the Form. Click on Design tab. In Layout View 1. Click on Layout View. Access displays the Form as it 2 originally appears, but each element is editable. You can change the font, size, style, alignment, or color of the text.
The Format tab appears only when you view the Form in Layout view. Open the Form in which you. P 3 want to format in Layout view. Click on the field or label that you want to format.
Click on Format tab. Click on the formatting that you want to apply, such as fill color. You can also apply another formatting in this field. Access applies formatting to the field. You can change the theme of a Form using preset designs, fonts, and colors to give it a different look.
Open the Form that you want 2 to format in Layout view. Click on Design tab on the Ribbon. Click on Themes button. The full palette of themes 4 appears. Select a new theme by clicking 32 on it. Access applies new format theme to the Form. The selected data appears Colored b. Highlighted c. Gray 2. The shortcut key for ‘Find’ option is You can modify the structure of the table in Datasheet View b. Design View c.
Query View 4. Arranging records in a particular order is called Filtering b. Sorting c. Forming 5. Table b. Query c. Form B.
Find option is used to search a piece of record in Tables and Forms. Primary key field cannot be deleted in Access. Filtering by form enables you to filter by single field. You cannot move through the record in a form to review or edit any information.
View and View are the two views in which you can view your table. Primary key does not allow to enter Sorting Filtering What is the use of toggle filter option?
What do you mean by Relationship window? What do you mean by Form? What is the use of Split Form? What do you mean by Filtering data by Selection and by Form? Ruchi has created three tables. Create a table using the Datasheet View, containing following fields in it: Roll No. Postal code. Select the fourth record and delete it. Enter three more sets of records in the table. Tuition Fee Store the following records in the table:. Dance Fee.
Save the table as ‘Fee Details’ without keeping any of the fields as Primary key. Using Form Wizard, make a form with any one of the above tables. Save the Form. Close the Database window and exit Access. In your previous chapters, you learnt how to work in table, create relationship between tables, and create forms.
In this chapter, you will learn how to create Queries and Reports in Access. The Query Query is a request for specific data from the database. The capability of querying a database is one of the most powerful database features. In other words, a Query is simply a question represented in a way that Access can understand. If you want to find the answer to a question, you will have to create a corresponding query first.
Once your query has been. P created, you instruct Access to run the query that is to perform the steps through which you can obtain your answer. The answer will then be displayed in the Datasheet View. Simple Query : Simple query is used to ask some particular questions about data in the database. Unmatched Query : Unmatched query is used to find the records from one table that do not have corresponding values in the second table.
Duplicate Query : Duplicate query is used to display the records that have same values for one or more of the specified fields. Creating a Query You can use Design View to manually create a selected query. When you use Design View, you have more control over the details of the query design. Perform the following steps to begin creating a query: 1.
Click on Create tab. Click on Query Design 2 button. Lists of all the tables in your 3 database are shown in this area. Click on a table that contains information you want to use in your query. Click on Add button to add the table to your query. A box appears in the Select Query window, displaying the fields for the table you selected.
Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each table you want to use in your query. Click on Close button to hide the Show Table dialog box. In case of multiple tables, the field lists are joined by a line. These joined lines link key field that shares the same field name. The joined lines indicate table relationships that relate the data in one table to. Each box in this area displays the fields for one table.
If you add a table accidentally to the query and want to delete it, click on the table and then press the Delete key. This removes the table from the query, but not from 37 the database. Double-click with the left mouse button on a field you want to include in your query. The field you selected and the table that contains the field are displayed in this area. Repeat step 7 for each field you want to include in your query.
You should click on the Run button in the database toolbar to achieve this purpose. Access will then perform the steps that are necessary to obtain and display the answer. The set of records that make up. P the answer will be displayed in Datasheet view. Though it might look like a table, it is not actually so. The data stored in the existing table is used to construct the records.
If you were to change the data in the Students Detail table and then re-run this same query, the results would reflect the changes. Click on Run button in the Result 1 group from Design tab to run the query. The results of the query appear in Datasheet View. The records that meet the conditions you specified appear in this area. A query does not store data; it retrieves data that is stored in tables. Sometimes, to share that table with others, you may want to save the results of the query as a new table.
The Save As dialog box appears. Type a name for your query, and click on OK button to save your query. When you finish viewing the results of your query, click on Close x button to close the query. Understanding Query Options The query window is divided into two panes. The top pane displays the tables selected for the query. The bottom pane displays a design grid where you can add fields to the query and also specify the criteria.
QBE grid Field. P Database Tables: While creating a query, you can pull fields from more than one table, provided they have a relationship between them.
Field lists: The complete field list of each table appears in a separate window. Run button: Clicking on the Run button will produce the result of Query. Field: The Field row shows the field name. Table: The Table row shows the name of the table from where the field has been pulled. Sort: The Sort row indicates the field s by which the results should be sorted. Show: Any field can be omitted from the results by deselecting its checkbox.
Or: Additional criteria can be entered in the Or row. Criteria are conditions that identify the records you want to find. Using Text Data While using queries, you usually look for the records that satisfy some criterion. You might want to find the list of students who are learning Kathak dance. To enter criteria, enter the name of dance in the Criteria row in the design grid below the field name to which the criterion applies.
For example, to indicate that the name of the dance must be Kathak, you 39 must first add the dance field to the design grid.
You would then type Kathak in the Criteria row below the Dance field, and click on Run button in the Ribbon to run the Query. Open the query in Design View.
Click in the Criteria field and type the data that you want to view. In this example, we list a Dance name Kathak as the criterion. Click on Run button to see the results. The table now shows only the records matching the query. This example lists records in which only Kathak is listed as the Dance name. Using Wildcards in Query P Wildcards are symbols that represent any character or combination of characters.
Access provides two special wildcards. The other wildcard symbol is the question mark? Thus R? Click on the Criteria area for the field you want to 3 use to find specific records. Click on Run button. The result is displayed. Only the students whose names start with R are included. Activity Time: Try the usage of second wildcard?
Using Compound Criteria Often, more than one criterion might be available to satisfy the data you are searching. This is called compound criteria. There are two types of compound criteria.
In the AND criterion, each individual criterion must be true in order for the compound criteria to be true. The OR criterion is true provided either of the individual criterion is true. Using Compound Operator If you do not specify a criteria, Access assumes that the criteria you have entered involve equality exact matches. If you want something other than the exact match, you can specify ranges of value by using comparison operator.
Click the Criteria area for the field 3 you want to use to find specific. P records. The result of the query appears. In this example, Access found students whose. For example, you may want to see the dance forms in which the students are participating and would like them to be arranged in an alphabetical order. You have to sort the records to order them in the answer to a particular query. The field or fields on which the records are sorted is called the sort key. If you are sorting on more than one 41 field, the more important field is called the major key also called the primary sort key , and the less important field is called the minor key also called the secondary sort key.
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Rather than enjoying a good PDF subsequently a cup of coffee in the afternoon, otherwise they juggled FileMaker Pro The Missing Manual Susan Prosser You don’t need a technical so FileMaker Pro: The Missing Manual is the authoritative, jargon-free book that should have been in the box. FileMaker Pro: The Missing Manual. FileMaker Cloud – Help. FileMaker Developer 5 – Developer’s Guide. FileMaker Developer – Developer’s Guide. FileMaker Developer 6 – Developer’s Guide. FileMaker Developer 7 – Installation and New Features Guide. FileMaker Developer 7 – Developer’s Guide. FileMaker Go – Technical Brief. make FileMaker Pro indispensable for anyone in business, government, and education who needs to effortlessly manage all their information on iPad, iPhone, Windows, OS X, and the web. About this guide This User’s Guide contains an introduction to FileMaker Pro features and provides step-by-step instructions on the most common FileMaker Pro tasks. lesen gratis Filemaker Pro The Missing Manual, gratis ebooks deutsch Filemaker Pro The Missing Manual, kostenlos lesen online Filema.
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These can then be compiled into PHP or loaded dynamically at runtime. Extensions have been written to add support for the Windows API, process management on Unix-like operating systems, multibyte strings Unicode , cURL, and several popular compression formats. Some more unusual features include integration with Internet Relay Chat, dynamic generation of images and Adobe Flash content, and even speech synthesis. Zend provides a certification exam for programmers to become certified PHP developers.
It includes facilities to add, modify or delete data from the database, ask questions or queries about the data stored in the database and produce reports summarizing selected contents. The basic program runs as a server providing multi-user access to a number of databases. MySQL is a database. The data in MySQL is stored in database objects called tables.
A table is a collections of related data entries and it consists of columns and rows. Databases are useful when storing information categorically. Each table is identified by a name e.
Tables contain records rows with data. With MySQL, we can query a database for specific information and have a recordset returned. This function is used to send a query or command to a MySQL connection.
Whether you enjoy the control of hand-coding HTML or prefer to work in a visual editing environment, Dreamweaver provides you with helpful tools to enhance your web creation experience. The visual editing features in Dreamweaver let you quickly create pages without writing a line of code. You can view all your site elements or assets and drag them from an easy-to-use panel directly into a document.
You can streamline your development workflow by creating and editing images in Macromedia Fireworks or another graphics application, then importing them directly into Dreamweaver, or by adding Macromedia Flash objects. Macromedia Roundtrip HTML technology imports your hand-coded HTML documents without reformatting the code; you can then reformat code with your preferred formatting style.
Examples of accessibility features for software products and websites include screen reader support, text equivalents for graphics, keyboard shortcuts, change of display colors to high contrast, and so on. Dreamweaver provides tools that make the product accessible and tools that help you author accessible content: Using Dreamweaver accessibility features For Dreamweaver web designers who need to use accessibility features, Dreamweaver offers screen reader support, keyboard navigation, and operating system accessibility support.
For more information, see Using Dreamweaver accessibility features. Authoring for accessibility For Dreamweaver web designers who need to create accessible content, Dreamweaver assists you in creating accessible pages that contain useful content for screen readers and comply with government guidelines. Dreamweaver provides dialog boxes that prompt you to enter accessibility attributes when you insert page elements see Optimizing the workspace for accessible page design.
For example, the accessibility dialog box for images reminds you to add text equivalents for graphics. Then, when the image appears on a page for a user with visual disabilities, the screen reader reads the description. You can either insert div tags manually and apply CSS positioning styles to them, or you can use Dreamweaver layers to create your layout. A layer in Dreamweaver is an HTML page element—specifically, a div tag, or any other tag—that has an absolute position assigned to it.
Whether you use CSS, tables, or frames to lay out your pages, Dreamweaver has rulers and grids for visual guidance in your layout. Dreamweaver also has a tracing image feature, which you can use to re-create a page design that was created in a graphics application. Client-side role of forms Forms support the client side of the client-server relationship.
When a visitor enters information into a form displayed in a web browser the client and clicks the submit button, the information is sent to the server where a server-side script or application processes it. Proper support may also need changes in php.
UTF-8, which is currently default , you should install mbstring and ctype extensions. Not using mcrypt will cause phpMyAdmin to load pages significantly slower. Core development of the Apache Web server is performed by a group of about 20 volunteer programmers, called the Apache Group.
However, because the source code is freely available, anyone can adapt the server for specific needs, and there is a large public library of Apache add-ons. In many respects, development of Apache is similar to development of the Linux operating system. The name is a tribute to the Native American Apache Indian tribe, a tribe well known for its endurance and skill in warfare. A common misunderstanding is that it was called Apache because it was developed from existing NCSA code plus various patches, hence the name a patchy server, or Apache server.
Apache has attracted so much interest because it is full-featured, reliable, and free. One aspect of Apache that some site administrators find confusing — especially those unfamiliar with UNIX-style software — is its configuration scheme. Instead of using a point-and-click graphic user interface GUI or Windows Registry keys as most other modern software packages, Apache generally relies on simple text files for its configuration settings. Originally, the initial installation of Apache included default entries within each of the three files.
In the most recent versions of Apache, however, the default installation has changed. Now httpd. Both srm. Inside Httpd. These entries appear as follows in the file: ServerName compnetworking. Recall that in a UNIX environment, the term daemon refers to a type of process designed to launch at system boot and continue running for very long periods of time.
This file contains a number of other entries technically called directives , but for most of these,modifications are optional. Probably the most useful of these entries is ServerAdmin. Access and Security Settings It is recommended practice now for Apache administrators to manage their resource and security settings from httpd. Administrators of older versions of Apache can simply cut their entries from srm. If an administrator wants to go one step further and delete the two empty files, they should also place the following entries in httpd.
Thereby the number of hostels are also increasing for the accommodation of the students studying in this institution. This particular project deals with the problems on managing a hostel and avoids the problems which occur when carried manually Identification of the drawbacks of the existing system leads to the designing of computerized system that will be compatible to the existing system with the system which is more user friendly and more GUI oriented.
We can improve the efficiency of the system, thus overcome the following drawbacks of the existing system. The Administrator can allot different students to the different hostels. He can vacate the students for the hostels. He can control the status of the fee payement. He can edit the details of the students. He can change their rooms, edit and delete the student records. A process of converting user originated inputs to a computer-based format.
Input design is an important part of development process since inaccurate input data are the most common cause of errors in data processing. Erroneous entries can be controlled by input design.
It consists of developing specifications and procedures for entering data into a system and must be in simple format. The goal of input data design is to make data entry as easy, logical and free from errors as possible. In input data design, we design the source document that capture the data and then select the media used to enter them into the computer. There are two major approaches for entering data in to the computer.
Menus A menu is a selection list that simplifies computer data access or entry. Instead of remembering what to enter, the user chooses from a list of options. A menu limits a user choice of response but reduce the chances for error in data entry.
It allows the display of bitmaps and pictures. It can have various controls like buttons, text boxes, list boxes and combo boxes. The proposed system has three major inputs. In order to understand the working procedure, process design is necessary. Data Flow Diagram and System Flow chart are the tools used for process design. System Flow Chart is a graphical representation of the system showing the overall flow of control in processing at the job level; specifies what activities must be done to convert from a physical to logical model.
Data Flow Diagram is the logical representation of the data flow of the project. The DFD is drawn using various symbols. It has a source and a destination. The process is represented using circles and source and destination are represented using squares. The data flow is represented using arrows. One reader can easily get the idea about the project through Data Flow Diagram.
Designing the database is part of system design. Data elements and data structures to be stored have been identified at analysis stage. They are structured and put together to design the data storage and retrieval system. A database is a collection of interrelated data stored with minimum redundancy to serve many users quickly and efficiently.
The general objective is to make database access easy, quick, inexpensive and flexible for the user. Relationships are established between the data items and unnecessary data items are removed. Normalization is done to get an internal consistency of data and to have minimum redundancy and maximum stability.
This ensures minimizing data storage required, minimizing chances of data inconsistencies and optimizing for updates. The MS Access database has been chosen for developing the relevant databases. Student account creation 2. Allotment 5. Notice Board 4. When we design an output we must identify the specific output that is needed to meet the system.
The usefulness of the new system is evaluated on the basis of their output. Once the output requirements are determined, the system designer can decide what to include in the system and how to structure it so that the require output can be produced. For the proposed software, it is necessary that the output reports be compatible in format with the existing reports.
It consists of developing specifications and procedures for data preparation, those steps necessary to put the inputs and the desired output, ie maximum user friendly. Proper messages and appropriate directions can control errors committed by users.
The output design is the key to the success of any system. Output is the key between the user and the sensor. Output design consists of displaying specifications and procedures as data presentation. User never left with the confusion as to what is happening without appropriate error and acknowledges message being received. Even an unknown person can operate the system without knowing anything about the system.
Testing is the process of executing the program with the intent of finding errors and missing operations and also a complete verification to determine whether the objectives are met and the user requirements are satisfied. The ultimate aim is quality assurance. Tests are carried out and the results are compared with the expected document.
In the case of erroneous results, debugging is done. Using detailed testing strategies a test plan is carried out on each module.
Unit testing focuses first on modules, independently of one another, to locate errors. This enables, to detect errors in coding and logic that are contained within each module. This testing includes entering data and ascertaining if the value matches to the type and size supported by java.
The various controls are tested to ensure that each performs its action as required. Integration testing is a systematic testing to discover errors associated within the interface. The objective is to take unit tested modules and build a program structure. All the modules are combined and tested as a whole. Here the Server module and Client module options are integrated and tested. This testing provides the assurance that the application is well integrated functional unit with smooth transition of data.
The system under consideration is tested for user acceptance by constantly keeping in touch with the system users at time of developing and making changes whenever required. It involves careful planning, investigation of the current system and its constraints on implementation, design of methods to achieve the change over, an evaluation of change over methods. Apart from planning major task of preparing the implementation are education and training of users.
The implementation process begins with preparing a plan for the implementation of the system. According to this plan, the activities are to be carried out, discussions made regarding the equipment and resources and the additional equipment has to be acquired to implement the new system. In network backup system no additional resources are needed. Implementation is the final and the most important phase. The most critical stage in achieving a successful new system is giving the users confidence that the new system will work and be effective.
The system can be implemented only after thorough testing is done and if it is found to be working according to the specification. This method also offers the greatest security since the old system can take over if the errors are found or inability to handle certain type of transactions while using the new system.
For this purpose user manuals are prepared and handled over to the user to operate the developed system. Thus the users are trained to operate the developed system. Both the hardware and software securities are made to run the developed systems successfully in future. User manuals describing the procedures for using the functions listed on menu are circulated to all the users. It is confirmed that the system is implemented up to users need and expectations.
It means restoring something to its original condition. Maintenance is also done based on fixing the problems reported, changing the interface with other software or hardware enhancing the software.
Any system developed should be secured and protected against possible hazards. Security measures are provided to prevent unauthorized access of the database at various levels. An uninterrupted power supply should be so that the power failure or voltage fluctuations will not erase the data in the files. Password protection and simple procedures to prevent the unauthorized access are provided to the users. The system allows the user to enter the system only through proper user name and password.
This hostel management software is designed for people who want to manage various activi- ties in the hostel. Identification of the drawbacks of the existing system leads to the designing of computerized system that will be compatible to the existing system with the system which is more user friendly and more GUI oriented.
Dreamweaver 8 takes the hassle out of the little things so you can spend more time designing and developing engaging websites and applications. Dreamweaver also provides sample web pages that were designed for accessibility see Creating a document based on a Dreamweaver design file and an accessibility report that you can run to test your page or site against the Section accessibility guidelines.
The workspace layout In Windows, Dreamweaver provides an all-in-one-window integrated layout. In the integrated workspace, all windows and panels are integrated into a single larger application window. Dreamweaver can also display a floating workspace in which each document appears in its own individual window.
Panel groups are initially docked together, but can be undocked into their own windows. The Start page enables you to open a recent document or create a new document. From the Start page you can also learn more about Dreamweaver by taking a product tour or a tutorial.
Each object is a piece of HTML code that enables you to set various attributes as you insert it. For example, you can insert a table by clicking the Table button in the Insert bar. If you prefer, you can insert objects using the Insert menu instead of the Insert bar. The Document toolbar contains buttons that provide options for different views of the Document window such as Design view and Code view , various viewing options, and some common operations such as previewing in a browser.
The Coding toolbar displayed in Code view only contains buttons that let you perform many standard coding operations. It also contains a button that lets you enable or disable CSS styles.
The Document window displays the current document as you create and edit it. The Property inspector lets you view and change a variety of properties for the selected object or text.
Each kind of object has different properties. The Property inspector is not expanded by default in the Coder workspace layout. The tag selector in the status bar at the bottom of the Document window shows the hierarchy of tags surrounding the current selection.
DirectAdmin Access . ESET Remote administrator . ArmA multiplayer . Halo: Combat Evolved multiplayer host . Halo: Combat Evolved multiplayer listener . Ghost blogging platform . Docker Swarm cluster management communications  [ self-published source ]. KGS Go Server .
CVS version control system password-based server. IEC , used to send electric power telecontrol messages between two systems via directly connected data circuits. OrientDB database listening for binary client connections . Oracle database listening for insecure client connections to the listener, replaces port [ when? Oracle database listening for SSL client connections to the listener. NetFS communication . Ultima Online servers [ citation needed ]. DICT .
SQL Anywhere database server  . XBT Tracker. Ruby on Rails development default . Meteor development default  [ failed verification ]. Resilio Sync ,  spun from BitTorrent Sync. Create React App, script to create single-page React applications .
BlackBerry Enterprise Server communication protocol . Squid caching web proxy . WhiskerControl research control protocol. Net Assistant ,  a predecessor to Apple Remote Desktop. Apple Remote Desktop 2. MySQL database system . Eggdrop , an IRC bot default port . OpenOCD gdbserver . PlayStation Network . SMTP alternate . Apcupsd Information Port .
Distcc , distributed compiler . Subversion SVN  version control system. Some Blizzard games . CimTrak registered port. Harman Professional HiQnet protocol. Diameter base protocol RFC Oracle Enterprise Manager Remote Agent. Warframe online interaction [ citation needed ]. OpenTTD game masterserver and content service.
Protocol information and warnings [ clarification needed ]. Minger Email Address Verification Protocol . Xgrid . Microsoft Remote Web Workplace administration. Teradici PCoIP. ManageSieve . AWS protocol for cloud remoting solution. Couch Potato Android app . NATS server default port . Aleph One , a computer game. Docker implementations, redistributions, and setups default  [ needs update? Viber . Referral Whois RWhois Protocol . Metasploit ‘s default listener port .
OpenOCD Telnet . Armagetron Advanced server default. Sinatra default server port in development mode HTTP. Identity Registration Protocol. Default for older versions of eMule . Default bootstap port to use on device to talk to Appium. IP Flow Information Export. UPnP —Windows network device interoperability. FlightGear multiplayer . Synology Inc. Flask Development Webserver. Docker Registry . Apple’s AirPlay Receiver . League of Legends , a multiplayer online battle arena video game .
FileMaker — name binding and transport . Neverwinter Nights. AOL Instant Messenger protocol. Outlaws , a first-person shooter video game [ citation needed ].
Certificate Management over CMS . Kega Fusion, a Sega multi-console emulator  . PostgreSQL  database system. Cisco Unified Video Advantage [ citation needed ]. Hotline tracker server connection. Hewlett-Packard Data Protector [ citation needed ]. Port though often changed during installation. Freeciv versions up to 2. Kibana . IBM Lotus Sametime p2p file transfer. NRPE Nagios. Hazelcast default communication port . System Center Operations Manager . ProjectWise Server .
TeamViewer remote desktop protocol . X11 —used between an X client and server over the network. Backup Exec Agent Browser [ citation needed ].
Blizzard ‘s Battle. Club Penguin Disney online game for kids, Used by some Blizzard games . ObjectDB database server . Thermo-Calc Software AB: Management of service nodes in a processing grid for thermodynamic calculations. Sybase Advantage Database Server. Kubernetes API server . Sun Grid Engine Qmaster Service. Discord RPC . Port assignment for medical device communication in accordance to IEEE Syslog over TLS .
Pylons project Pyramid Default Pylons Pyramid web service port. Speech-Dispatcher daemon [ citation needed ]. Windows Live FolderShare client. Microsoft Forefront Threat Management Gateway. OpenFlow [ citation needed ]. BitTorrent Local Peer Discovery. Splashtop Remote server broadcast. BitTorrent beginning of range of ports used most often. Windows Live Messenger File transfer. QuickTime Streaming Server .
Voicemeeter VBAN network audio protocol . Database mirroring endpoints . Zimbra LMTP [mailbox]—local mail delivery. Enemy Territory: Quake Wars. Peercast [ citation needed ]. Zimbra mysql [mailbox] [ citation needed ]. Zimbra mysql [logger] [ citation needed ]. Sibelius License Server. Web control interface for Folding home v7. Rise: The Vieneo Province. Neo4J Server webadmin . Default port used by Open iT Server. Saratoga file transfer protocol  . Populous: The Beginning server.
Instrument Neutral Distributed Interface. Delivery Optimization for Windows 10 . Bolt database connection. Killing Floor. Oracle Cluster File System 2 [ citation needed ]. Windows backdoor program tini.
Just Cause 2: Multiplayer Mod Server [ citation needed ]. Unreal Tournament series default server [ citation needed ]. Default used by Smartlaunch Internet Cafe Administration  software.
PowerSchool Gradebook Server [ citation needed ]. Default for YSFlight server . Docker Swarm communication among nodes . Used by SilverBluff Studios for communication between servers and clients.
Atlassian Bitbucket default port [ citation needed ]. DynamoDB Local . Django Development Webserver . Python 3 http. Tomcat remote shutdown . Proxmox Virtual Environment admin web interface . Quest AppAssure 5 Engine . Proxmox Backup Server admin web interface. Alternative port for HTTP. See also ports 80 and Matrix homeserver federation over HTTP .
Apache JServ Protocol ajp13 [ citation needed ]. Buildbot web status page [ citation needed ]. OpenERP 5. Killing Floor web administration interface [ citation needed ]. Apache Tomcat . Atlassian JIRA applications . Asterisk management access via HTTP [ citation needed ]. Splunk daemon management .
Box automatic TR configuration . Atlassian Confluence . Coral Content Distribution Network legacy; 80 and now supported .
Matrix identity server [ citation needed ]. CouchBase web administration . CouchBase API . Bloomberg Terminal . Bitcoin . Filestash server default . Shadowsocks proxy server [ citation needed ]. MineOs WebUi. Adobe ColdFusion built-in web server .
Freegate , an Internet anonymizer and proxy tool . Tibero database [ citation needed ]. Ultra Fractal , a fractal generation and rendering software application — distributed calculations over networked computers  .
Default port of a local GUN relay peer that the Internet Archive  and others use as a decentralized mirror for censorship resistance.
Voice channel of TeamSpeak 2 ,  a proprietary Voice over IP protocol targeted at gamers [ citation needed ]. Opera Unite , an extensible framework for web applications  .
Freenet web UI localhost only [ citation needed ]. MAMP . Apache Solr . Alternate port for I2P Monotone Proxy  [ jargon ]. I2P Monotone Proxy  [ jargon ].
SonarQube Web Server . Play Framework web server . Hadoop NameNode default port. QBittorrent ‘s embedded torrent tracker default port . ETL Service Manager . Microsoft SharePoint authoring environment.
Tor network default. Tomcat in standalone mode . Tor often used. Apache Cassandra native protocol clients. Prometheus metrics server. SqueezeCenter control CLI. Transmission BitTorrent client Web Interface. PDL Data Stream, used for printing to certain network printers . Tor Browser. Elasticsearch  —default Elasticsearch port. Sony PlayStation RemotePlay . Used by all Supercell games such as Brawl Stars and Clash of Clans, mobile freemium strategy video games.
MooseFS distributed file system — master control port . MooseFS distributed file system — master command port . MooseFS distributed file system — master client port . MooseFS distributed file system — Chunkservers . Bitcoin Lightning Network . Tripwire —File Integrity Monitoring Software . Tvheadend HTTP server web interface . Splunk port for communication between the forwarders and indexers. Urchin Web Analytics [ citation needed ].
Dash cryptocurrency . Ubiquiti UniFi access points broadcast to CrossFire , a multiplayer online First Person Shooter [ citation needed ]. TeamSpeak 3 ServerQuery . Zimbra smtp [mta]—to amavis from postfix [ citation needed ]. Zimbra smtp [mta]—back to postfix from amavis [ citation needed ]. Mathoid server . Digital Combat Simulator Dedicated Server . BlueStacks android simulator broadcast . Farming Simulator [ citation needed ]. Jungle Disk this port is opened by the Jungle Disk Monitor service on the localhost [ citation needed ].
Octopus Deploy Tentacle deployment agent . Robot Operating System master. OpenRCT2 multiplayer . Second Life , used for server UDP in-bound . Cube World . NetBus remote administration tool often Trojan horse. Age of Wonders III p2p port . Kaspersky Network Agent . ZeroNet fileserver [ citation needed ]. Battlefield Vietnam and mods. RabbitMQ management plugin . Project Zomboid multiplayer. Additional sequential ports used for each player connecting to server.
Dropbox LanSync Protocol db-lsp ; used to synchronize file catalogs between Dropbox clients on a local network. Monero P2P network communications [ citation needed ]. Monero incoming RPC calls [ citation needed ]. Bitcoin testnet . JACK sound server. Minecraft: Bedrock Edition multiplayer server . Minecraft: Bedrock Edition IPv6 multiplayer server .
Google Talk Voice and Video connections . Empires Ascendant. Starbound Server default , Starbound. Duke Nukem 3D source ports. Minecraft Java Edition multiplayer server  . Minecraft Java Edition multiplayer server query . Xonotic , an open-source arena shooter. FlexNet Publisher ‘s License server from the range of default ports. Steam game client traffic . GoldSrc and Source engine dedicated server port . Steam matchmaking and HLTV .
Steam downloads . Magicka and Space Engineers server port. MongoDB daemon process mongod and routing service mongos . Steam In-Home Streaming . Siemens Digital Industries Software license server . Starsiege: Tribes [ citation needed ].
FileMaker Pro The Missing Manual by Susan Prosser. You don’t need a technical background to build powerful databases with FileMaker Pro This crystal-clear, objective guide shows you how to create a database that lets you do almost anything with your data so you can quickly achieve your goals. DRM-Free Books Newsletters Feedback. FileMaker Pro 8: The Missing Manual Geoﬀ Coﬀey Used by millions worldwide, FileMaker Pro is an award-winning database program for managing people, projects, images, assets, and other information. It’s easy to use and totally customizable–so long as you know what you’re doing. But FileMaker Pro doesn’t come with a printed manual. FileMaker Cloud – Help. FileMaker Developer 5 – Developer’s Guide. FileMaker Developer – Developer’s Guide. FileMaker Developer 6 – Developer’s Guide. FileMaker Developer 7 – Installation and New Features Guide. FileMaker Developer 7 – Developer’s Guide. FileMaker Go – Technical Brief. Rather than enjoying a good PDF subsequently a cup of coffee in the afternoon, otherwise they juggled FileMaker Pro The Missing Manual Susan Prosser You don’t need a technical so FileMaker Pro: The Missing Manual is the authoritative, jargon-free book that should have been in the box. FileMaker Pro: The Missing Manual.
– Я спущусь вниз, в подсобное помещение, и выключу рубильник. Стратмор медленно повернулся. Он являл собой печальное зрелище. – Это сделаю я, – сказал он, встал и, спотыкаясь, начал выбираться из-за стола.
Сьюзан, чуть подтолкнув, усадила его на место.
Стратмор сразу заметил изумление, мелькнувшее в ее глазах, и взволнованно изложил свой план: – Если бы я получил ключ, то смог бы взломать наш экземпляр «Цифровой крепости» и внести нужные изменения… – «Черный ход», – сказала Сьюзан, мгновенно забыв о том, что Стратмор ей лгал. Она все поняла. – Вроде «Попрыгунчика». Стратмор кивнул: – Тогда мы смогли бы подменить интернетовский файл, который Танкадо собирается выбросить на рынок, нашей измененной версией.
Сьюзан должна была признать, что прозвучало это довольно убедительно. У Танкадо не было причин подозревать, что код в Интернете не является оригиналом. Никто не имел к нему доступа, кроме него самого и Северной Дакоты. Если бы Танкадо не вернулся к анализу программы больше информации ее выпуска свет, он ничего бы не узнал про этот «черный misssing.
Но он так долго трудился над «Цифровой крепостью», что вряд ли ему захотелось бы к ней возвращаться.